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Solutions for Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chemistry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780618528448 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Full solutions for Chemistry | 7th Edition

ISBN: 9780618528448

Chemistry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780618528448 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Solutions for Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Solutions for Chapter 2
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 7
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780618528448

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 7. Since 94 problems in chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions have been answered, more than 51214 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780618528448. Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions includes 94 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Absolute confi guration

    Which of the two possible isomers an enantiomer is (i.e., whether it is the right- or left-handed isomer).

  • Alkyl group

    A group derived by removing a hydrogen from an alkane; given the symbol R!

  • anode.

    The electrode at which oxidation occurs. (18.2)

  • Atropisomers

    Enantiomers that lack a chiral center and differ because of hindered rotation.

  • Betaine

    A neutral molecule with nonadjacent positive and negative charges. An example of a betaine is the intermediate formed by addition of a Wittig reagent to an aldehyde or ketone

  • bonding molecular orbital.

    A molecular orbital that is of lower energy and greater stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed. (10.6)

  • combustion reaction.

    A reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen, usually with the release of heat and light, to produce a flame. (4.4)

  • critical mass.

    The minimum mass of fissionable material required to generate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. (19.5)

  • cubic close packing

    A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as close as possible, and the close-packed layers of atoms adopt a three-layer repeating pattern that leads to a face-centered cubic unit cell. (Section 12.3)

  • effective nuclear charge

    The net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom; this charge is not the full nuclear charge because there is some shielding of the nucleus by the other electrons in the atom. (Section 7.2)

  • Hammond postulate

    In an exothermic process the transition state is closer in energy to the reactants than to the products, and therefore the structure of the transition state more closely resembles the reactants. In contrast, the transition state in an endothermic process is closer in energy to the products, and therefore the transition state more closely resembles the products.

  • Ionization potential (IP)

    The minimum energy required to remove an electron from an atom or molecule to a distance where there is no electrostatic interaction between the resulting ion and electron.

  • law of definite proportions

    A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure substance is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of constant composition. (Section 1.2)

  • magic numbers

    Numbers of protons and neutrons that result in very stable nuclei. (Section 21.2)

  • mass number

    The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a particular atom. (Section 2.3)

  • metallic bond

    Bonding, usually in solid metals, in which the bonding electrons are relatively free to move throughout the three-dimensional structure. (Section 8.1)

  • Orbital

    A region of space that can hold two electrons

  • Prochiral hydrogens

    Refers to two hydrogens bonded to a carbon atom. When a different atom replaces one or the other, the carbon becomes a chiral center. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are prochiral. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol

  • spectroscopy

    The study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

  • standard atmospheric pressure

    Defined as 760 torr or, in SI units, 101.325 kPa. (Section 10.2)

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