Solutions for Chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

Chemistry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780618528448 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Full solutions for Chemistry | 7th Edition

ISBN: 9780618528448

Chemistry | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9780618528448 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Solutions for Chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy

Solutions for Chapter 16
4 5 0 297 Reviews
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Textbook: Chemistry
Edition: 7
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9780618528448

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry, edition: 7. Since 99 problems in chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy have been answered, more than 15252 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chemistry was written by Sieva Kozinsky and is associated to the ISBN: 9780618528448. Chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy includes 99 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • addition polymerization

    Polymerization that occurs through coupling of monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction. (Section 12.8)

  • Carboxylic ester

    A derivative of a carboxylic acid in which H of the carboxyl group is replaced by a carbon.

  • cathode.

    The electrode at which reduction occurs. (18.2)

  • chemical equilibrium.

    A state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. (14.1)

  • enthalpy

    A measure of the exchange of energy between the system and its surroundings during any process.

  • functional group

    A characteristic group of atoms/bonds that possess a predictable chemical behavior.

  • heat of fusion

    The enthalpy change, ?H, for melting a solid. (Section 11.4)

  • Hess’s law

    The heat evolved in a given process can be expressed as the sum of the heats of several processes that, when added, yield the process of interest. (Section 5.6)

  • nuclear binding energy

    The energy required to decompose an atomic nucleus into its component protons and neutrons. (Section 21.6)

  • orbital

    An allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom; the term orbital is also used to describe the spatial distribution of the electron. An orbital is defined by the values of three quantum numbers: n, l, and ml (Section 6.5)

  • pi 1P2 bond

    A covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated above and below the internuclear axis. (Section 9.6)

  • pressure–volume (PV) work

    Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)

  • proton

    A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. (Section 2.3)

  • Quaternary (4°) ammonium ion

    An ion in which nitrogen is bonded to four carbons and bears a positive charge

  • rare earth element

    See lanthanide element. (Sections 6.8 and 6.9)

  • regiochemistry

    A term describing a consideration that must be taken into account for a reaction in which two or more constitutional isomers can be formed.

  • reverse osmosis

    The process by which water molecules move under high pressure through a semipermeable membrane from the more concentrated to the less concentrated solution. (Section 18.4)

  • Schiff base

    An alternative name for an imine

  • solution

    A mixture of substances that has a uniform composition; a homogeneous mixture. (Section 1.2)

  • strong deactivators

    Groups that strongy deactivate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby significantly decreasing the rate of the reaction.

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