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Solutions for Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chemical Principles | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781305581982 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Full solutions for Chemical Principles | 8th Edition

ISBN: 9781305581982

Chemical Principles | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9781305581982 | Authors: Steven S. Zumdahl

Solutions for Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Solutions for Chapter 2
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Textbook: Chemical Principles
Edition: 8
Author: Steven S. Zumdahl
ISBN: 9781305581982

This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 95 problems in chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions have been answered, more than 111023 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chemical Principles was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781305581982. Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions includes 95 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemical Principles, edition: 8.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Acylium ion

    A resonance-stabilized cation with the structure [RC"O]1 or [ArC"O]1. The positive charge is delocalized over both the carbonyl carbon and the carbonyl oxygen.

  • addition polymers

    Polymers that are formed via cationic addition, anionic addition, or free-radical addition.

  • amino acids.

    A compound that contains at least one amino group and at least one carboxyl group. (25.3)

  • anti-periplanar

    A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of approximately 180°.

  • Dehydrohalogenation

    Removal of !H and !X from adjacent carbons; a type of b-elimination

  • diatomic molecule

    A molecule composed of only two atoms. (Section 2.6)

  • entropy

    A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)

  • fuel value

    The energy released when 1 g of a substance is combusted. (Section 5.8)

  • Heat of reaction (DH0 )

    The difference in enthalpy between reactants and products. If the enthalpy of products is lower than that of the reactants, heat is released and the reaction is exothermic. If the enthalpy of the products is higher than that of the reactants, energy is absorbed, and the reaction is endothermic

  • hydride ion

    An ion formed by the addition of an electron to a hydrogen atom: H-. (Section 7.7)

  • hydrolysis

    A reaction with water. When a cation or anion reacts with water, it changes the pH. (Sections 16.9 and 24.4)

  • isotactic

    A polymer in which the repeating units contain chirality centers which all have the same configuration.

  • Monomer

    From the Greek, mono 1 meros, meaning single part. The simplest nonredundant unit from which a polymer is synthesized.

  • normal melting point

    The melting point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.6)

  • photochemical smog

    A complex mixture of undesirable substances produced by the action of sunlight on an urban atmosphere polluted with automobile emissions. The major starting ingredients are nitrogen oxides and organic substances, notably olefins and aldehydes. (Section 18.2)

  • polyatomic ion

    An electrically charged group of two or more atoms. (Section 2.7)

  • proton

    A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. (Section 2.3)

  • second law of thermodynamics

    A statement of our experience that there is a direction to the way events occur in nature. When a process occurs spontaneously in one direction, it is nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. It is possible to state the second law in many different forms, but they all relate back to the same idea about spontaneity. One of the most common statements found in chemical contexts is that in any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases. (Section 19.2)

  • Shell

    A region of space around a nucleus that can be occupied by electrons, corresponding to a principal quantum number

  • Triol

    A compound containing three hydroxyl groups.