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Solutions for Chapter 3.4: Counting Atoms
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2006 | 1st Edition
A substance capable of donating a proton. (4.3)
conjugate acid–base pair
An acid and a base, such as H2O and OH-, that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton. (Section 16.2)
A substance formed by the loss of a proton from a Brønsted–Lowry acid. (Section 16.2)
Compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms
E (Section 5.2C)
From the German, entgegen, opposite. Specifi es that groups of higher priority on the carbons of a double bond are on opposite sides
A compound containing a hydroxyl group (OH) connected directly to a carbon-carbon double bond.
The mass of the collection of atoms represented by a chemical formula. For example, the formula weight of NO2 (46.0 amu) is the sum of the masses of one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms. (Section 3.3)
The structure of the transition state for an exothermic step looks more like the reactants of that step than the products. Conversely, the structure of the transition state for an endothermic step looks more like the products of that step than the reactants.
The relationship among the pH, pKa, and the concentrations of acid and conjugate base in an aqueous solution: pH = pKa + log 3base4 3acid4. (Section 17.2)
A reaction that involves the addition of H and X (either Br or Cl) across an alkene.
A nonpolar group that does not have favorable interactions with water.
Liquids that do not dissolve in one another to a significant extent. (Section 13.3)
A cyclic amide.
A pair of unshared, or nonbonding, electrons.
Points in an atom at which the electron density is zero. For example, the node in a 2s orbital is a spherical surface. (Section 6.6)
Polymers of high molecular weight that carry genetic information and control protein synthesis. (Section 24.10)
A compound that contains a carbon-metal bond.
Pauli exclusion principle
No more than two electrons may be present in an orbital. If two electrons are present, their spins must be paired
A molecule, ion, or radical described as a composite of a number of contributing structures
A covalent bond involving one electron pair. (Section 8.3)