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Solutions for Chapter 13.1: Compounds in Aqueous Solutions
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
A reaction in which a reagent adds to the two carbon atoms of a carbon–carbon multiple bond. (Section 24.3)
The product obtained when the aldehyde group of an aldose is oxidized.
A conformation of cyclohexane in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5° and many hydrogen atoms are eclipsing each other.
In 13C NMR spectroscopy, a technique in which all 13C!1H splitting is suppressed with the use of two rf transmitters.
A reaction (generally involving radicals) in which one chemical entity can ultimately cause a chemical transformation for thousands of molecules.
A separation method involving passing a vapor or solution mixture through a column packed with a material with different affi nities for different components of the mixture.
All nonvalence electrons in an atom. (8.2)
The removal of salts from seawater, brine, or brackish water to make it fit for human consumption. (Section 18.4)
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that installs an acyl group on an aromatic ring.
Haloalkane (alkyl halide)
A compound containing a halogen atom covalently bonded to an sp3 -hybridized carbon atom. Given the symbol R!X.
heat of vaporization
The enthalpy change, ?H, for vaporization of a liquid. (Section 11.4)
A twostep process that achieves an anti-Markovnikov addition of a proton and a hydroxyl group (OH) across an alkene.
hydrogen deficiency index (HDI)
A measure of the number of degrees of unsaturation in a compound.
net ionic equation
A chemical equation for a solution reaction in which soluble strong electrolytes are written as ions and spectator ions are omitted. (Section 4.2)
Valence electrons not involved in forming covalent bonds. Also called unshared pairs or lone pairs.
Compounds formed from a molecule of phosphoric acid, a sugar molecule, and an organic nitrogen base. Nucleotides form linear polymers called DNA and RNA, which are involved in protein synthesis and cell reproduction. (Section 24.10)
Refers to two hydrogens bonded to a carbon atom. When a different atom replaces one or the other, the carbon becomes a chiral center. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are prochiral. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol
The addition of atoms or groups of atoms to the same face of a carbon-carbon double bond.
A molecule containing three amino acid units, each joined to the next by a peptide bond
A net neutral compound that exhibits charge separation. Amino acids exist as zwitterions at physiological pH.
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