- 20.1.1: Why is the use of a salt bridge or porous barrier necessary in an e...
- 20.1.2: Given the Cu2+(aq) | Cu(s) and Mg2+(aq) | Mg(s) half-reactions, whe...
- 20.1.3: Write the half-reaction in which I-(aq) changes to I2(s). Would thi...
- 20.1.4: RELATING IDEAS Is the net chemical result of an electrochemical cel...
Solutions for Chapter 20.1: Introduction to Electrochemistry
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
Compounds containing a carbon-carbon triple bond.
A radical reaction that achieves installation of a bromine atom at an allylic position.
Avogadro’s number (NA)
The number of 12C atoms in exactly 12 g of 12C; it equals 6.022 * 1023 mol-1. (Section 3.4)
The most stable nonplanar conformation of a cyclohexane ring; all bond angles are approximately 109.5°, and all bonds on adjacent carbons are staggered.
In an acid-base reaction, the product that results when a base is protonated.
A compound in which two p bonds are separated from each other by exactly one s bond.
A method for selectively cleaving and identifying the N-terminal amino acid of a polypeptide chain.
The probability of finding an electron at any particular point in an atom; this probability is equal to c2, the square of the wave function. Also called the probability density. (Section 6.5)
A biological membrane that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with proteins, carbohydrates, and other lipids on the surface and embedded in the bilayer
gas constant (R)
The constant of proportionality in the ideal-gas equation. (Section 10.4)
Gibbs free energy change (DG°)
The energy that dictates the position of chemical equilibria and rates of chemical reactions. A thermodynamic function of enthalpy, entropy, and temperature, given by the equation DG° 5 DH° 2 TDS°. If DG° , 0, the position of equilibria for the reaction favors products. If DG° . 0, the position of equilibria favors reactants.
Homolytic bond cleavage
Cleavage of a bond so that each fragment retains one electron; formation of radicals.
levorotatory, or merely levo or l
A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the left (counterclockwise). (Section 24.4)
The difference between the mass of a nucleus and the total masses of the individual nucleons that it contains. (Section 21.6)
An achiral compound possessing two or more chiral centers that also has chiral isomers
A solution containing just one enantiomer, but not its mirror image.
Polymers that are similar in structure to polyesters but with repeating carbonate groups (!O!CO2!) instead of repeating ester groups (!CO2!). polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Principle of microscopic reversibility
This principle states that the sequence of transition states and reactive intermediates in the mechanism of any reversible reaction must be the same, but in reverse order, for the reverse reaction as for the forward reaction
A measure of the decrease in concentration of a reactant or the increase in concentration of a product with time. (Section 14.2)
A solution in which undissolved solute and dissolved solute are in equilibrium. (Section 13.2)