- 21.3.1: What is required to shield alpha particles? Why are these materials...
- 21.3.2: a. What is the average exposure of people living in the United Stat...
- 21.3.3: What device is used to measure the radiation exposure of people wor...
- 21.3.4: Explain why nuclear radiation can be used to preserve food.
- 21.3.5: INFERRING CONCLUSIONS Explain how nuclear waste is contained, store...
Solutions for Chapter 21.3: Nuclear Radiation
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
A substance that is able to donate a H+ ion (a proton) and, hence, increases the concentration of H+1aq2 when it dissolves in water. (Section 4.3)
A carbocation in which an allylic carbon bears the positive charge.
A chemical reaction that proceeds with evolution of heat and usually also a flame; most combustion involves reaction with oxygen, as in the burning of a match. (Section 3.2)
degree of substitution
For alkenes, a classification method that refers to the number of alkyl groups connected to the double bond.
dextrorotatory, or merely dextro or d
A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the right (clockwise). (Section 23.4)
electrostatic potential maps
A three-dimensional, rainbowlike image used to visualize partial charges in a compound.
An equation of state for gases that embodies Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, and Avogadro’s hypothesis in the form PV = nRT. (Section 10.4)
A substance added to a solution that changes color when the added solute has reacted with all the solute present in solution. The most common type of indicator is an acid–base indicator whose color changes as a function of pH. (Section 4.6)
A polymer in which the repeating units contain chirality centers which all have the same configuration.
A biomolecule isolated from plant or animal sources by extraction with nonpolar organic solvents, such as diethyl ether and hexane.
A system of measurement used in science and in most countries. The meter and the gram are examples of metric units. (Section 1.4)
A combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity. (Section 1.2)
From the Greek, mono 1 meros, meaning single part. The simplest nonredundant unit from which a polymer is synthesized.
net ionic equation
A chemical equation for a solution reaction in which soluble strong electrolytes are written as ions and spectator ions are omitted. (Section 4.2)
A biopolymer containing three types of monomer units: heterocyclic aromatic amine bases derived from purine and pyrimidine, the monosaccharides d-ribose or 2-deoxy-d-ribose, and phosphoric acid
parts per billion (ppb)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
The conversion of a substance from one state of matter to another. The phase changes we consider are melting and freezing 1solid ? liquid2, sublimation and deposition, and vaporization and condensation 1liquid ? gas2. (Section 11.4)
The smallest increment (a quantum) of radiant energy; a photon of light with frequency n has an energy equal to hn. (Section 6.2)
The sloweststep in a multistep reaction which determines the rate of the reaction.
A process of reasoning backwards from a target molecule to a suitable set of starting materials.