- 21.3.1: What is required to shield alpha particles? Why are these materials...
- 21.3.2: a. What is the average exposure of people living in the United Stat...
- 21.3.3: What device is used to measure the radiation exposure of people wor...
- 21.3.4: Explain why nuclear radiation can be used to preserve food.
- 21.3.5: INFERRING CONCLUSIONS Explain how nuclear waste is contained, store...
Solutions for Chapter 21.3: Nuclear Radiation
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
Hydrocarbons that do not contain the benzene group or the benzene ring. (24.1)
A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton acceptor. (Section 16.2)
The rules used in naming substances. (Section 2.8)
Polymerization in which molecules are joined together through condensation reactions. (Section 12.8)
When two waves interact with each other in a way that produces a wave with a larger amplitude.
Dalton’s law of partial pressures.
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is just the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone. (5.6)
An element that forms two bonds, such as oxygen.
The number of full cycles of a wave that pass a given point in a second, and reported in hertz (Hz), which has the units s21
Any b-elimination that occurs preferentially to give the less substituted alkene as the major product.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy
A spectroscopic technique in which a compound is irradiated with infrared radiation, absorption of which causes covalent bonds to change from a lower vibration state to a higher one. Infrared spectroscopy is particularly valuable for determining the kinds of functional groups present in a molecule.
A compound thatrotates plane-polarized light in a counterclockwisedirection (-).
A naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon. (Section 5.8)
An allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom; the term orbital is also used to describe the spatial distribution of the electron. An orbital is defined by the values of three quantum numbers: n, l, and ml (Section 6.5)
A ligand in which two or more donor atoms can coordinate to the same metal ion. (Section 23.3)
A particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge, 0 +1e, or b+. (Section 21.1)
The closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement. (Section 1.5)
A mixture of substances that has a uniform composition; a homogeneous mixture. (Section 1.2)
A polymerization in which chain growth occurs in a stepwise manner between difunctional monomers as, for example, between adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine to form nylon 66. Also called condensation polymerization.
Constitutional isomers in equilibrium with each other that differ in the location of a hydrogen atom and a double bond relative to a heteroatom, most commonly O, N, or S.
The difference in energy between staggered and eclipsed conformations (for example, in ethane).
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