- 22.3.1: Give the general formula and class of organic compounds for each of...
- 22.3.2: Compare the boiling points of alcohols, ethers, and alkanes, and ex...
- 22.3.3: How are aldehydes and ketones alike? How are they different?
- 22.3.4: How do the strengths of organic acids compare with the strengths of...
- 22.3.5: applying models Identify the functional groups in vanillin, shown i...
Solutions for Chapter 22.3: Functional Groups
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
A solvent that cannot serve as a hydrogen-bond donor; nowhere in the molecule is there a hydrogen bonded to an atom of high electronegativity. Common aprotic solvents are dichloromethane, diethyl ether, and dimethyl sulfoxide
The pressure exerted by Earth’s atmosphere. (5.2)
The wave function (?) of an electron in an atom. (7.5)
One-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. For elements that exist as diatomic units, the atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms in a particular molecule. (8.3)
An alkane containing two rings that share two carbons
Any substituent on a benzene ring that causes the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution to be lower than that for benzene.
degree of substitution
For alkenes, a classification method that refers to the number of alkyl groups connected to the double bond.
The escape of a gas through an orifice or hole. (Section 10.8)
A reaction in which the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of a single reactant, raised to the first power. (Section 14.4)
An effect that explains why alkyl groups stabilize a carbocation.
A drawing style inwhich the electrons take center stage.linear polymer (Sect. 27.6): A polymer thathas only a minimal amount of branching or nobranching at all.
A device that uses strong magnetic and electrostatic fields to accelerate charged particles. (Section 21.3)
A form of lipid molecule that contains charged phosphate groups. (Section 24.9)
The pH of blood (approximately 7.3).
A set of rules for specifying absolute confi guration about a chiral center; also called the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system
A mixture of equal amounts of two enantiomers.
In NMR spectroscopy, a signal that is comprised of only one peak.
The energy required to pair an electron with another electron occupying an orbital. (Section 23.6)
Tertiary structure of nucleic acids
The threedimensional arrangement of all atoms of a nucleic acid, commonly referred to as supercoiling
In IR spectroscopy, the location of each signal is reported in terms of this frequency-related unit.