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Solutions for Chapter 22.4: Organic Reactions

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780547586632 | Authors: Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis

Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition

ISBN: 9780547586632

Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780547586632 | Authors: Jerry L. Sarquis, Mickey Sarquis

Solutions for Chapter 22.4: Organic Reactions

Since 7 problems in chapter 22.4: Organic Reactions have been answered, more than 52237 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 22.4: Organic Reactions includes 7 full step-by-step solutions. Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780547586632. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012, edition: 1. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • atmospheric pressure.

    The pressure exerted by Earth’s atmosphere. (5.2)

  • blocking group

    A group that can be readily installed and uninstalled. Used for regiochemical control during synthesis.

  • Born-Haber cycle.

    The cycle that relates lattice energies of ionic compounds to ionization energies, electron affinities, heats of sublimation and formation, and bond enthalpies. (9.3)

  • Carbanion

    An ion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge.

  • carbohydrates

    A class of substances formed from polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. (Section 24.8)

  • chemical equilibrium

    A state of dynamic balance in which the rate of formation of the products of a reaction from the reactants equals the rate of formation of the reactants from the products; at equilibrium the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant. (Section 4.1;Chapter 15: Introduction)

  • Clemmensen reduction

    Reduction of the C"O group of an aldehyde or ketone to a CH2 group using Zn(Hg) and HCl

  • debye (D)

    A unit of measure fordipole moments, where 1 debye = 10-18 esu×cm.

  • enolate

    The resonance-stabilized conjugate base of a ketone, aldehyde, or ester.

  • Hofmann elimination

    A reaction in which an amino group is treated with excess methyl iodide, thereby converting it into an excellent leaving group, followed by treatment with a strong base to give an E2 reaction that yields an alkene.

  • Infrared active

    Any molecular vibration that leads to a substantial change in dipole moment and is observed in an IR spectrum.

  • metallic character

    The extent to which an element exhibits the physical and chemical properties characteristic of metals, for example, luster, malleability, ductility, and good thermal and electrical conductivity. (Section 7.6)

  • normal melting point

    The melting point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.6)

  • oxidation

    A reaction in which one compound undergoes an increase in oxidation state.

  • racemic mixture

    A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)

  • retention of configuration

    During a reaction, when the configuration of a chirality center remains unchanged.

  • retrosynthetic analysis

    A systematic set of principles that enable the design of a synthetic route by working backward from the desired product.

  • reverse osmosis

    The process by which water molecules move under high pressure through a semipermeable membrane from the more concentrated to the less concentrated solution. (Section 18.4)

  • scientific law

    A concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a wide range of observations and experiences. (Section 1.3)

  • secondary structure

    The threedimensional conformations of localized regions of a protein, including helices and b-pleated sheets.

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