- 23.3.1: List four ways in which the body uses energy.
- 23.3.2: What is the total energy (in kilojoules) stored in the 36 ATP molec...
- 23.3.3: The teeth break large pieces of food into smaller ones. However, th...
- 23.3.4: How does the digestion of fat in a strip of ham differ from the dig...
- 23.3.5: Why are diets that are severely restrictive in carbohydrate intake ...
- 23.3.6: relati ng concepts When a molecule of glucose is oxidized, only abo...
Solutions for Chapter 23.3: Metabolism
Full solutions for Modern Chemistry: Student Edition 2012 | 1st Edition
activation energy (Ea)
The minimum energy needed for reaction; the height of the energy barrier to formation of products. (Section 14.5)
A peroxide for which each oxygen atom is connected to an acyl group. Acyl peroxides are often used as radical initiators, because the O!O bond is especially weak.
The resonancestabilized, cationic intermediate of a Friedel-Crafts acylation, formed by treating an acyl halide with aluminum trichloride.
Avogadro’s number (NA).
6.022 3 1023; the number of particles in a mole. (3.2)
A reaction in which two species are involved in the rate-determining step.
The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at which chemical reactions occur. (13.1)
A cyclic polyether derived from ethylene glycol and substituted ethylene glycols.
A carbohydrate in which the !OH on its anomeric carbon is replaced by !OR
The polarization of the electron density of a covalent bond caused by the electronegativity of a nearby atom.
Molecular dipole moment (m)
The vector sum of individual bond dipoles.
The arrangement in space of the atoms of a molecule. (Section 9.2)
Points in an atom at which the electron density is zero. For example, the node in a 2s orbital is a spherical surface. (Section 6.6)
Model of the atom with a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and with electrons in the space outside the nucleus. (Section 2.2)
Pauli exclusion principle
No more than two electrons may be present in an orbital. If two electrons are present, their spins must be paired
Refers to two hydrogens bonded to a carbon atom. When a different atom replaces one or the other, the carbon becomes a chiral center. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are prochiral. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol
A process in which heat converts a mineral in an ore from one chemical form to another and eventually to the free metal. (Section 23.2)
Rate determining step
The step in a multistep reaction sequence that crosses the highest energy barrier.
Matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume. (Section 1.2)
An intermediate with tetrahedral geometry. This type of intermediate is formed when a nucleophile attacks the carbonyl group of a carboxylic acid derivative.
For alkenes, a stereodescriptor that indicates that the two priority groups are on the same side of the p bond.
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