Solutions for Chapter 4.11: SUMMARY
Full solutions for Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 4th Edition
The closeness of a measurement to the true value of the quantity that is measured. (1.8)
Hydrocarbons that do not contain the benzene group or the benzene ring. (24.1)
A negatively charged ion. (Section 2.7)
A polyaromatic amide; a polymer in which the monomer units are an aromatic diamine and an aromatic dicarboxylic acid
One-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. For elements that exist as diatomic units, the atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms in a particular molecule. (8.3)
A neutral molecule with nonadjacent positive and negative charges. An example of a betaine is the intermediate formed by addition of a Wittig reagent to an aldehyde or ketone
The measurement of heat changes. (6.5)
A step in a chain reaction that involves destruction of reactive intermediates
A complex polymer resulting from the polymerization of two or more chemically different monomers. (Section 12.8)
A nonsuperimposable mirror image.
Haloarene (aryl halide)
A compound containing a halogen atom bonded to a benzene ring. Given the symbol Ar!X
A rule stating that electrons occupy degenerate orbitals in such a way as to maximize the number of electrons with the same spin. In other words, each orbital has one electron placed in it before pairing of electrons in orbitals occurs. (Section 6.8)
A process that cannot be reversed to restore both the system and its surroundings to their original states. Any spontaneous process is irreversible. (Section 19.1)
A type of isomerism involving keto (from ketone) and enol tautomers
limiting reactant (limiting reagent)
The reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric quantity in a mixture of reactants; the amount of product that can form is limited by the complete consumption of the limiting reactant. (Section 3.7)
Part per million (ppm)
Units used on NMR spectra to record chemical shift relative to the TMS standard.
A C6H5 group.
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally. (Section 8.4)
A conformation of a conjugateddiene in which the disposition of the two p bonds with regard to the connecting single bond is translike (a dihedral angle of 180°).
A term used to describe two identical groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms.
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