Solutions for Chapter 4.15: SUMMARY
Full solutions for Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 4th Edition
A carbon atom adjacent to a carbonyl group
activated complex (transition state)
The particular arrangement of atoms found at the top of the potential-energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products. (Section 14.5)
A copolymer that contains an alternating distribution of repeating units.
A common non-SI unit of length, denoted Å, that is used to measure atomic dimensions: 1Å = 10-10 m. (Section 2.3)
A tetrahedral carbon atom bearing four different groups.
Alkanes whose carbon atoms are joined in rings. (24.2)
Electrophilic aromatic substitution
A reaction in which there is substitution of an electrophile, E1, for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring
A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is lower than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an exergonic reaction favors products.
Any molecular vibration that leads to a substantial change in dipole moment and is observed in an IR spectrum.
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with alkali metals and also the heavier alkaline earths (Ca, Sr, and Ba); these compounds contain the hydride ion, H-. (Section 22.2)
A compound containing a carbonyl group bonded to two carbons.
normal melting point
The melting point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.6)
A nucleoside in which a molecule of phosphoric acid is esterifi ed with an !OH of the monosaccharide, most commonly either the 39!OH or the 59!OH.
Addition of a reagent to a metal center causing it to add two substituents and to increase its oxidation state by two
Planck constant (h)
The constant that relates the energy and frequency of a photon, E = hn. Its value is 6.626 * 10-34 J@s. (Section 6.2)
Plane of symmetry
An imaginary plane passing through an object dividing it so that one half is the mirror image of the other half
A polymer that can be molded when hot and retains its shape when cooled
pressure–volume (PV) work
Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)
The geometry of an atom with four bonds separated from each other by 109.5°.
Cleavage by heating
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