Solutions for Chapter 4.101: SUMMARY
Full solutions for Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes | 4th Edition
For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
activated complex (transition state)
The particular arrangement of atoms found at the top of the potential-energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products. (Section 14.5)
A compound containing a !CHO group
A polymer in which the repeating units contain chirality centers which are not arranged in a pattern (they have random configurations).
An sp3 -hybridized carbon bonded to a benzene ring
A structure containing two rings that are fused together.
Carbonyl group (Section 1.3C)
A C"O group.
common ion effect.
The shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substances. (16.2)
critical pressure (Pc).
The minimum pressure necessary to bring about liquefaction at the critical temperature. (11.8)
crystalline solid (crystal)
A solid whose internal arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions possesses a regularly repeating pattern in any direction through the solid. (Section 12.2)
Orbitals that have the same energy.
A compound in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to one oxygen. (Section 24.4)
A conformation about a single bond of an alkane in which two groups on adjacent carbons lie at a dihedral angle of 60°
An equation that is often employed to calculate the pH of buffered solutions: pH = pKa + log 3conjugated base4 3acid4
A compound containing two carbon-carbon p bonds that are separated by two or more s bonds.
Points in a crystal all of which have identical environments. (Section 12.2)
A Lewis base bonded to a metal atom in a coordination compound. It may bond strongly or weakly.
In NMR spectroscopy, if n is the number of neighboring protons, then the multiplicity will be n+1.
nucleophilic aromatic substitution
A substitution reaction in which an aromatic ring is attacked by a nucleophile, which replaces a leaving group.
An addition or substitution reaction in which one of two or more possible products is formed in preference to all others that might be formed.
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