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Solutions for Chapter 21: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition

ISBN: 9780321696724

Chemistry: The Central Science | 12th Edition | ISBN: 9780321696724 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward

Solutions for Chapter 21: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Solutions for Chapter 21
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 12
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward
ISBN: 9780321696724

Summary of Chapter 21: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Examine the basic structure of atoms and discuss the formation of molecules and ions, thereby providing a foundation for exploring chemistry more deeply.

This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321696724. Chapter 21: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions includes 97 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 12. Since 97 problems in chapter 21: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions have been answered, more than 588234 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • axial position

    For chair conformations of substituted cyclohexanes, a position that is parallel to a vertical axis passing through the center of the ring.

  • Bonding electrons

    Valence electrons involved in forming a covalent bond (i.e., shared electrons).

  • Chain initiation

    A step in a chain reaction characterized by the formation of reactive intermediates (radicals, anions, or cations) from nonradical or noncharged molecules

  • chelating agent

    A polydentate ligand that is capable of occupying two or more sites in the coordination sphere. (Section 23.3)

  • cohesion.

    The intermolecular attraction between like molecules. (11.3)

  • coupling constant

    When signal splitting occurs in NMR spectroscopy, the distance between the individual peaks of a signal.

  • critical pressure (Pc).

    The minimum pressure necessary to bring about liquefaction at the critical temperature. (11.8)

  • disrotatory

    In electrocyclicreactions, a type of rotation in which the orbitalsbeing used to form the new s bond must rotate in opposite directions (one rotates clockwise while the other rotates counterclockwise).

  • Energy

    The ability to do work.

  • fibrous proteins

    Proteins that consist of linear chains that are bundled together.

  • gas constant (R)

    The constant of proportionality in the ideal-gas equation. (Section 10.4)

  • ionic bond

    A bond between oppositely charged ions. The ions are formed from atoms by transfer of one or more electrons. (Section 8.1)

  • metallic elements (metals)

    Elements that are usually solids at room temperature, exhibit high electrical and heat conductivity, and appear lustrous. Most of the elements in the periodic table are metals. (Sections 2.5 and 12.1)

  • methyl shift

    A type of carbocation rearrangement in which a methyl group migrates.

  • molecular formula

    A chemical formula that indicates the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance. (Section 2.6)

  • ozonolysis

    A reaction in which the CRC bond of an alkene is cleaved to form two CRO bonds.

  • peptide bond

    A bond formed between two amino acids. (Section 24.7)

  • protium

    The most common isotope of hydrogen. (Section 22.2)

  • Ring current

    An applied magnetic fi eld causes the p electrons of an aromatic ring to circulate, giving rise to the so-called ring current and an associated magnetic fi eld that opposes the applied fi eld in the middle of the ring but reinforces the applied fi eld on the outside of the ring.

  • tautomers

    Constitutional isomers that rapidly interconvert via the migration of a proton.