- 20.20-1: How do gaseous and desorption sources differ" What are the advantag...
- 20.20-2: How do the spectra for electron-impact, field ionization, and chemi...
- 20.20-3: Describe the difference between gaseous field ionization sources an...
- 20.20-4: The following figure is a simplified diagram of a commercially avai...
- 20.20-5: When a magnetic sector instrument was operated with an accelerating...
- 20.20-6: 6 Calculate the accelerating voltage that would be required to dire...
- 20.20-7: The ion-accelerating voltage in a particular quadrupole mass spectr...
- 20.20-8: On page 288 a qualitative discussion described how a positive ion w...
- 20.20-9: Why do double-focusing mass spectrometers give narrower peaks and h...
- 20.20-10: Discuss the differences between quadrupole ion-trap mass spectromet...
- 20.20-11: Calculate the resolution required to resolve peaks for(a) CH,N (ell...
- 20.20-12: What mass differcnces can just be resolved at m values of 100, 500,...
- 20.20-13: 3 Calculate the ratio of the (M + 2)' to M' and the (M + 4)+ to M p...
- 20.20-14: In a magnetic sector (single-focusing) mass spectrometer, it might ...
- 20.20-15: Measuring the approximate mass of an ion without using a standard c...
- 20.20-16: Discuss the major differences between a tandem-in-space mass spectr...
- 20.20-17: Identifv the ions responsible for the peaks in the mass spectrum sh...
- 20.20-18: Identifv the ions responsihle for the four peaks having greater mas...
- 20.20-19: Figure 20-27 shows the mass spectrum of the same compound from an e...
- 20.20-20: (a) Which mass spectrum would be hest for determining the molecular...
Solutions for Chapter 20: Molecular Mass Spectrometry
Full solutions for Principles of Instrumental Analysis | 6th Edition
A substance that yields hydrogen ions (H1) when dissolved in water. (2.7)
A steroid hormone, such as testosterone, that mediates the development of sexual characteristics of males.
Antibonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electrons have a higher energy than they would in isolated atomic orbitals
A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)
A chemical reaction that proceeds with evolution of heat and usually also a flame; most combustion involves reaction with oxygen, as in the burning of a match. (Section 3.2)
The process in which molecules, ions, or atoms come together to form a crystalline solid. (Section 13.2)
The isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus contains a proton and a neutron: 2 1H. (Section 22.2)
A material that can undergo a substantial change in shape via stretching, bending, or compression and return to its original shape upon release of the distorting force. (Section 12.6)
Atoms or groups on an atom that give a chiral center when one of the groups is replaced by another group. A pair of enantiomers results. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are enantiotopic. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol. Enantiotopic groups have identical chemical shifts in achiral environments but different chemical shifts in chiral environments.
free energy (Gibbs free energy, G)
A thermodynamic state function that gives a criterion for spontaneous change in terms of enthalpy and entropy: G = H - TS. (Section 19.5)
When considering electrons in atomic orbitals, a rule that states that one electron is placed in each degenerate orbital first, before electrons are paired up.
law of constant composition
A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of definite proportions. (Section 1.2)
A common name for a thiol; that is, any compound that contains an -SH (sulfhydryl) group
The nucleophile in a Michael reaction.
A chemical formula that indicates the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance. (Section 2.6)
The special name given to the amide bond formed between the a-amino group of one amino acid and the a-carboxyl group of another amino acid
polar aprotic solvent
A solvent that lacks hydrogen atoms connected directly to an electronegative atom.
The energy that an object possesses as a result of its composition or its position with respect to another object. (Section 5.1)
A selective reducing agent (NaBH3CN) that can be used for reductive amination.
A conformation of cyclohexane that is lower in energy than a boat conformation but higher in energy than a chair conformation.