Solutions for Chapter 1.1: Atoms, Electrons, and Orbitals

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 1.1: Atoms, Electrons, and Orbitals

Solutions for Chapter 1.1
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Chapter 1.1: Atoms, Electrons, and Orbitals includes 2 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9. Since 2 problems in chapter 1.1: Atoms, Electrons, and Orbitals have been answered, more than 16528 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Organic Chemistry, was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • activate

    For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.

  • addition polymerization

    Polymerization that occurs through coupling of monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction. (Section 12.8)

  • Alkoxy group

    An !OR group where R is an alkyl group

  • Aromatic amine

    An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one or more aryl groups.

  • biodegradable polymers

    Polymers that can be broken down by enzymes produced by soil microorganisms.

  • Cycloalkane

    A saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbons joined to form a ring

  • dipole moment

    A measure of the separation and magnitude of the positive and negative charges in polar molecules. (Section 8.4)

  • Disaccharide

    A carbohydrate containing two monosaccharide units joined by a glycosidic bond.

  • E (Section 5.2C)

    From the German, entgegen, opposite. Specifi es that groups of higher priority on the carbons of a double bond are on opposite sides

  • electron shell

    A collection of orbitals that have the same value of n. For example, the orbitals with n = 3 (the 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals) comprise the third shell. (Section 6.5)

  • Formal charge

    The charge on an atom in a polyatomic ion or molecule

  • Hund’s rule

    A rule stating that electrons occupy degenerate orbitals in such a way as to maximize the number of electrons with the same spin. In other words, each orbital has one electron placed in it before pairing of electrons in orbitals occurs. (Section 6.8)

  • Leaving group

    The group that is displaced in a substitution reaction or the Lewis base that is lost in an elimination reaction

  • Markovnikov’s rule

    In the addition of HX, H2O, or ROH to an alkene, hydrogen adds to the carbon of the double bond having the greater number of hydrogens.

  • metallic hydrides

    Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with transition metals; these compounds contain the hydride ion, H-. (Section 22.2)

  • polar reaction

    A reaction that involves the participation of ions as reactants, intermediates, or products.

  • Resonance energy

    The difference in energy between a resonance hybrid and the most stable of its hypothetical contributing structures in which electrons are localized on particular atoms and in particular bonds.

  • Shielding in NMR

    Also called diamagnetic shielding; the term refers to the reduction in magnetic fi eld strength experienced by a nucleus underneath electron density induced to circulate when the molecule is placed in a strong magnetic fi eld.

  • structural proteins

    Fibrous proteins that are used for their structural rigidity. Examples include a-keratins found in hair, nails, skin, feathers, and wool.

  • Thermodynamic control

    Experimental conditions that permit the establishment of equilibrium between two or more products of a reaction. The composition of the product mixture is determined by the relative stabilities of the products.

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