- 184.108.40.206: How many electrons does carbon have? How many are valence electrons...
- 220.127.116.11: Referring to the periodic table as needed, write electron configura...
Solutions for Chapter 1.1: Atoms, Electrons, and Orbitals
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
Polymerization that occurs through coupling of monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction. (Section 12.8)
An !OR group where R is an alkyl group
An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one or more aryl groups.
Polymers that can be broken down by enzymes produced by soil microorganisms.
A saturated hydrocarbon that contains carbons joined to form a ring
A measure of the separation and magnitude of the positive and negative charges in polar molecules. (Section 8.4)
A carbohydrate containing two monosaccharide units joined by a glycosidic bond.
E (Section 5.2C)
From the German, entgegen, opposite. Specifi es that groups of higher priority on the carbons of a double bond are on opposite sides
A collection of orbitals that have the same value of n. For example, the orbitals with n = 3 (the 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals) comprise the third shell. (Section 6.5)
The charge on an atom in a polyatomic ion or molecule
A rule stating that electrons occupy degenerate orbitals in such a way as to maximize the number of electrons with the same spin. In other words, each orbital has one electron placed in it before pairing of electrons in orbitals occurs. (Section 6.8)
The group that is displaced in a substitution reaction or the Lewis base that is lost in an elimination reaction
In the addition of HX, H2O, or ROH to an alkene, hydrogen adds to the carbon of the double bond having the greater number of hydrogens.
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with transition metals; these compounds contain the hydride ion, H-. (Section 22.2)
A reaction that involves the participation of ions as reactants, intermediates, or products.
The difference in energy between a resonance hybrid and the most stable of its hypothetical contributing structures in which electrons are localized on particular atoms and in particular bonds.
Shielding in NMR
Also called diamagnetic shielding; the term refers to the reduction in magnetic fi eld strength experienced by a nucleus underneath electron density induced to circulate when the molecule is placed in a strong magnetic fi eld.
Fibrous proteins that are used for their structural rigidity. Examples include a-keratins found in hair, nails, skin, feathers, and wool.
Experimental conditions that permit the establishment of equilibrium between two or more products of a reaction. The composition of the product mixture is determined by the relative stabilities of the products.