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Solutions for Chapter 3.2: Conformational Analysis of Butane
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
The product obtained from 1,4-addition across a conjugated p system.
Any substituent on a benzene ring that causes the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution to be greater than that for benzene.
A compound that possesses a hydroxyl group (OH).
The distance between the centers of two bonded atoms. (Section 8.3)
Bonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electrons have a lower energy than they would in isolated atomic orbitals
Carboxyl group (Section 1.3D)
A !COOH group.
The spreading of electron density over a larger volume of space.
enthalpy of formation
The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of a substance from the most stable forms of its component elements. (Section 5.7)
A characteristic group of atoms/bonds that possess a predictable chemical behavior.
Elements that are in the same column of the periodic table; elements within the same group or family exhibit similarities in their chemical behavior. (Section 2.5)
The total energy possessed by a system. When a system undergoes a change, the change in internal energy, ?E, is defined as the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)
The electrophile in a Michael reaction.
A reagent used for allylic bromination to avoid a competing reaction in which bromine adds across the p bond.
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with only one p orbital to form two hybridized atomic orbitals.
The energy required to pair an electron with another electron occupying an orbital. (Section 23.6)
Two objects that are identical.
The addition of atoms or groups of atoms to the same face of a carbon-carbon double bond.
Experimental conditions that permit the establishment of equilibrium between two or more products of a reaction. The composition of the product mixture is determined by the relative stabilities of the products.
A polymer that can be melted and molded into a shape that is retained when it is cooled.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory, which can be used to predict the geometry around an atom.