Solutions for Chapter 3.5: Small Rings: Cyclopropane and Cyclobutane
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Particles that are identical to helium-4 nuclei, consisting of two protons and two neutrons, symbol 4 2He or 4 2a. (Section 21.1)
Instability that arises when a planar ring of continuously overlapping p orbitals contains 4n p electrons.
A type of geometry resulting from an sp3-hybridized atom that has two lone pairs. For example, the oxygen atom in H2O.
A means of protecting a metal against corrosion by making it the cathode in a voltaic cell. This can be achieved by attaching a more easily oxidized metal, which serves as an anode, to the metal to be protected. (Section 20.8)
In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the region of the molecule responsible for the absorption (the conjugated p system).
Atoms that lie in the same plane.
The breakdown of a compound into two or more components. (4.4)
The arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule. (Chapter 6:Introduction)
electrospray ionization (ESI):
In mass spectrometry, an ionization technique in which the compound is first dissolved in a solvent and then sprayed via a high-voltage needle into a vacuum chamber. The tiny droplets of solution become charged by the needle, and subsequent evaporation forms gas-phase molecular ions that typically carry one or more charges.
free energy (Gibbs free energy, G)
A thermodynamic state function that gives a criterion for spontaneous change in terms of enthalpy and entropy: G = H - TS. (Section 19.5)
A form of isomerism in which compounds with the same type and number of atoms and the same chemical bonds have different spatial arrangements of these atoms and bonds. (Sections 23.4 and 24.4)
A law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight. (Section 10.8)
A polymer that isformed via anionic polymerization.
nonmetallic elements (nonmetals)
Elements in the upper right corner of the periodic table; nonmetals differ from metals in their physical and chemical properties. (Section 2.5)
A solvent that contains at least one hydrogen atom connected directly to an electronegative atom.
An isotope that is radioactive; that is, it is undergoing nuclear changes with emission of radiation. (Section 21.1)
A constant of proportionality between the reaction rate and the concentrations of reactants that appear in the rate law. (Section 14.3)
A conformational change in which one chair conformation is converted into the other.
sigma 1S2 bond
A covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated along the internuclear axis. (Section 9.6)
Groups that weakly activate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby enhancing the rate of the reaction.
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