- 3.3.20: Give the IUPAC names of each of the following alkanes.
- 3.3.21: Sight down the C-2 C-3 bond, and draw Newman projection formulas fo...
- 3.3.22: One of the staggered conformations of 2-methylbutane in 3.21b is mo...
- 3.3.23: Sketch an approximate potential energy diagram for rotation about t...
- 3.3.24: Repeat 3.23 for the case of 2-methylbutane.
- 3.3.25: Identify all atoms that are (a) anti and (b) gauche to bromine in t...
- 3.3.26: Even though the methyl group occupies an equatorial site, the confo...
- 3.3.27: Which do you expect to be the more stable conformation of cis-1,3- ...
- 3.3.28: Determine whether the two structures in each of the following pairs...
- 3.3.29: Select the compounds in each group that are isomers and specify whe...
- 3.3.30: Excluding compounds that contain methyl or ethyl groups, write stru...
- 3.3.31: In each of the following groups of compounds, identify the one with...
- 3.3.32: Ambroxol is a drug used to treat bronchopulmonary disease. NH2 N H ...
- 3.3.33: Write a structural formula for the most stable conformation of each...
- 3.3.34: Identify the more stable stereoisomer in each of the following pair...
- 3.3.35: One stereoisomer of 1,1,3,5-tetramethylcyclohexane is 15 kJ/mol (3....
- 3.3.36: The heats of combustion of the more and less stable stereoisomers o...
- 3.3.37: One of the following two stereoisomers is 20 kJ/mol (4.9 kcal/mol) ...
- 3.3.38: Oxidation of 4-tert-butylthiane proceeds according to the equation ...
- 3.3.39: Biological oxidation of hydrocarbons is a commonly observed process...
- 3.3.40: The following are representations of two forms of glucose. The six-...
- 3.3.41: A typical steroid skeleton is shown along with the numbering scheme...
- 3.3.42: Repeat 3.41 for the stereoisomeric steroid skeleton having a cis ri...
- 3.3.43: (a) Write Newman projections for the gauche and anti conformations ...
- 3.3.44: The furanose and pyranose forms of d-ribose are: A. Conformational ...
- 3.3.45: What is the orientation of the OH groups at C-2 and C-3 in the pyra...
- 3.3.46: The OH groups at C-2 and C3 in the pyranose form of d-ribose are: A...
- 3.3.47: All of the OH groups of the pyranose form of d-xylose are equatoria...
- 3.3.48: The carbohydrate shown here is a component of a drug used in veteri...
- 3.3.49: What are the O C(1) C(2) O and O C(2) C(3) O torsion (dihedral) ang...
Solutions for Chapter 3: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes: Conformations and cistrans Stereoisomers
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 3: Alkanes and Cycloalkanes: Conformations and cistrans StereoisomersGet Full Solutions
In IR spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS spectroscopy, a plot that measures the percent transmittance or absorption as a function of frequency.
A carbohydrate that contains an aldehyde group.
The cycle that relates lattice energies of ionic compounds to ionization energies, electron affinities, heats of sublimation and formation, and bond enthalpies. (9.3)
A substance capable of donating a proton. (4.3)
In gas chromatography, a plot that identifies the retention time of each compound in the mixture.
A separation method involving passing a vapor or solution mixture through a column packed with a material with different affi nities for different components of the mixture.
A bond that results when two atoms share a pair of electrons.
Intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles. Also called London dispersion forces. (Section 11.2)
A chemical formula that shows the kinds of atoms and their relative numbers in a substance in the smallest possible whole-number ratios. (Section 2.6)
enthalpy of formation
The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of a substance from the most stable forms of its component elements. (Section 5.7)
The region of an IR spectrum that contains signals resulting from the vibrational excitation of most single bonds (stretching and bending).
The number of full cycles of a wave that pass a given point in a second, and reported in hertz (Hz), which has the units s21
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that installs an alkyl group on an aromatic ring.
Heat of reaction (DH0 )
The difference in enthalpy between reactants and products. If the enthalpy of products is lower than that of the reactants, heat is released and the reaction is exothermic. If the enthalpy of the products is higher than that of the reactants, energy is absorbed, and the reaction is endothermic
The equilibrium established between reactant and product substances that are all in the same phase. (Section 15.4)
An orbital that results from the mixing of different kinds of atomic orbitals on the same atom. For example, an sp3 hybrid results from the mixing, or hybridizing, of one s orbital and three p orbitals. (Section 9.5)
hydronium ion 1H3O+2
The predominant form of the proton in aqueous solution. (Section 16.2)
Solids that are composed of molecules. (Sections 12.1 and 12.6)
Cleavage by light.
polar covalent bond
A bond in which the difference in electronegative values of the two atoms is between 0.5 and 1.7.
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