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Solutions for Chapter 4.9: Structure, Bonding, and Stability of Carbocations
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A solution in which water is the solvent. (Chapter 4: Introduction)
atomic mass unit (amu).
A mass exactly equal to 1 12th the mass of one carbon-12 atom. (3.1)
An elementary step that involves two molecules. (13.5)
A reaction in which benzene is reduced to give 1,4-cyclohexadiene.
In a Lewis structure a pair of electrons that is shared by two atoms. (Section 9.2)
An ion in which carbon has an unshared pair of electrons and bears a negative charge.
Carbonyl group (Section 1.3C)
A C"O group.
crystal field splitting (D).
The energy difference between two sets of d orbitals in a metal atom when ligands are present. (23.5)
An ArN2 1 or RN2 1 ion
The arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule. (Chapter 6:Introduction)
The measure of disorder associated with a system.
The practice in which water laden with sand and other materials is pumped at high pressure into rock formations to release natural gas and other petroleum materials. (Section 18.4)
A compound with the structure R!C#C!R, where each R group is not a hydrogen atom.
levorotatory, or merely levo or l
A term used to label a chiral molecule that rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light to the left (counterclockwise). (Section 24.4)
The extent to which atomic orbitals on different atoms share the same region of space. When the overlap between two orbitals is large, a strong bond may be formed. (Section 9.4)
A reaction that takes place in a single step, without intermediates, and involves a cyclic redistribution of bonding electrons
Principle of microscopic reversibility
This principle states that the sequence of transition states and reactive intermediates in the mechanism of any reversible reaction must be the same, but in reverse order, for the reverse reaction as for the forward reaction
second law of thermodynamics
A statement of our experience that there is a direction to the way events occur in nature. When a process occurs spontaneously in one direction, it is nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. It is possible to state the second law in many different forms, but they all relate back to the same idea about spontaneity. One of the most common statements found in chemical contexts is that in any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases. (Section 19.2)
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with two p orbitals to form three hybridized atomic orbitals.
An intermediate with tetrahedral geometry. This type of intermediate is formed when a nucleophile attacks the carbonyl group of a carboxylic acid derivative.