Solutions for Chapter 6.2: Stereochemistry of Alkene Hydrogenation
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
The difference between the numbers of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals and antibonding molecular orbitals, divided by two. (10.7)
In 13C NMR spectroscopy, a technique in which all 13C!1H splitting is suppressed with the use of two rf transmitters.
A CRO bond. carboxylic acid derivative (Sect. 21.6): A compound that is similar in structure to a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) but the OH group of the carboxylic acid has been replaced with a different group, Z, where Z is a heteroatom such as Cl, O, N, etc. Nitriles (R!C#N) are also considered to be carboxylic acid derivatives because they have the same oxidation state as carboxylic acids.
In an acid-base reaction, the product that results when an acid is deprotonated.
A molecule containing two amino acid units joined by a peptide bond
The attraction between the positive end of one dipole and the negative end of another.
In NMR spectroscopy, a signal that is comprised of two peaks.
An eliminationreaction in which the leaving group only leavesafter deprotonation occurs. This process occurs atthe end of an aldol condensation.
Strands of a polymer that are generated when the polymer is heated, forced through small holes, and then cooled.
Interaction of electrons in a s-bonding orbital with the vacant 2p orbital of an adjacent positively charged carbon.
A pair of unshared, or nonbonding, electrons.
The concentration of a solution expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution; abbreviated M. (Section 4.5)
A compound that lacks a ring with a continuous system of overlapping p orbitals.
parts per billion (ppb)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
pi (p) bond
A bond formed from adjacent, overlapping p orbitals.
A measure of the ease of distortion of the distribution of electron density about an atom or group in response to interaction with other molecules or ions. Fluorine which has a high electronegativity and holds its electrons tightly, has a very low polarizability. Iodine, which has a lower electronegativity and holds its electrons less tightly, has a very high polarizability.
Polymers made up of repeating urethane groups, also sometimes called carbamate groups (!N!CO2!).
reducing agent, or reductant
The substance that is oxidized and thereby causes the reduction of some other substance in an oxidation–reduction reaction. (Section 20.1)
A process that is capable of proceeding in a given direction, as written or described, without needing to be driven by an outside source of energy. A process may be spontaneous even though it is very slow. (Section 19.1)
A term used to describe two identical groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms.
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