Solutions for Chapter 6.3: Heats of Hydrogenation
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
In IR spectroscopy, when two bonds are stretching out of phase with each other.
A high-energy intermediate formed during the elimination-addition reaction that occurs between chlorobenzene and either NaOH (at high temperature) or NaNH2.
boundary surface diagram.
Diagram of the region containing a substantial amount of the electron density (about 90 percent) in an orbital. (7.7)
Loss of CO2 from a carboxyl group.
A molecule that consists of two atoms. (2.5)
A steroid hormone, such as estrone and estradiol, that mediates the development of sexual characteristics in females.
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that installs an acyl group on an aromatic ring.
hexagonal close packing
A crystal structure where the atoms are packed together as closely as possible. The close-packed layers adopt a two-layer repeating pattern, which leads to a primitive hexagonal unit cell. (Section 12.3)
A protein, particularly rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine, that is found associated with DNA molecules
A compound composed of cations and anions. (Section 2.7)
A group capable ofseparating from a compound.
Any molecule or ion that can form a new covalent bond by donating a pair of electrons.
localized lone pair
A lone pair thatis not participating in resonance.
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with nonmetals and metalloids. (Section 22.2)
molecular orbital (MO)
An allowed state for an electron in a molecule. According to molecular-orbital theory, a molecular orbital is entirely analogous to an atomic orbital, which is an allowed state for an electron in an atom. Most bonding molecular orbitals can be classified as s or p, depending on the disposition of electron density with respect to the internuclear axis. (Section 9.7)
Molecular orbital (MO) theory
A theory of chemical bonding in which electrons in molecules occupy molecular orbitals that extend over the entire molecule and are formed by the combination of the atomic orbitals that make up the molecule
The percent of a substance that undergoes ionization on dissolution in water. The term applies to solutions of weak acids and bases. (Section 16.6)
A starting substance in a chemical reaction; it appears to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation. (Section 3.1)
A theory that many molecules and ions are best described as a hybrid of several Lewis structures
The positively charged intermediate of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction.
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