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Solutions for Chapter 8.10: Substitution and Elimination as Competing Reactions
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
addition to p bond
One of the six kinds of arrow-pushing patterns used in drawing mechanisms for radical reactions. A radical adds to a p bond, destroying the p bond and generating a new radical.
The Group 1A elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr). (2.4)
alpha (a) position
The position immediately adjacent to a functional group.
An alloy of mercury with another metal or metals. (21.2)
A region of a polymer in which nearby chains are not linearly extended and are not parallel to one another.
A bond to a chair conformation of cyclohexane that extends from the ring parallel to the imaginary axis through the center of the ring; a bond that lies roughly perpendicular to the equator of the ring.
A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)
Cyclic polyethers whose molecular models resemble crowns.
Orbitals that have the same energy.
An orbital that results from the mixing of different kinds of atomic orbitals on the same atom. For example, an sp3 hybrid results from the mixing, or hybridizing, of one s orbital and three p orbitals. (Section 9.5)
Refers to groups occupying 1,3-positions on a benzene ring.
A collection of Avogadro’s number 16.022 * 10232 of objects; for example, a mole of H2O is 6.022 * 1023 H2O molecules. (Section 3.4)
One of the four arrow-pushing patterns for ionic reactions.
oxidation number (oxidation state)
A positive or negative whole number assigned to an element in a molecule or ion on the basis of a set of formal rules; to some degree it reflects the positive or negative character of that atom. (Section 4.4)
Biological damage caused by photosensitizers, light, and oxygen, used to kill tumor and other cells.
A solution containing equal amounts of both enantiomers.
Sanger dideoxy method
A method developed by Frederick Sanger for sequencing DNA molecules
solubility-product constant (solubility product)1Ksp2
An equilibrium constant related to the equilibrium between a solid salt and its ions in solution. It provides a quantitative measure of the solubility of a slightly soluble salt. (Section 17.4)
A special type of stereoselective reaction in which the stereochemistry of the product is dependent on the stereochemistry of the starting material.
A reaction that has a rate equation in which the sum of all exponents is three
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