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Solutions for Chapter 10.10: Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Conjugated Dienes
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
aldol addition reaction
A reaction that occurs when an aldehyde or ketone is attacked by an enolate ion. The product of an aldol addition reaction is always a b-hydroxy aldehyde or ketone.
Refers to the capacity of a substance to either add or lose a proton 1H+2. (Section 16.2)
A substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent chemical change in the process. (Section 14.7)
The region of an IR spectrum that contains signals that arise from double bonds, triple bonds, and X!H bonds.
A law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution, Sg, is proportional to the pressure of gas over the solution: Sg = kPg. (Section 13.3)
Any b-elimination that occurs preferentially to give the less substituted alkene as the major product.
The polarization of the electron density of a covalent bond caused by the electronegativity of a nearby atom.
A cyclic ester.
An abbreviated way to draw structural formulas in which vertices and line endings represent carbons
The nucleophile in a Michael reaction.
A solid, inorganic substance occurring in nature, such as calcium carbonate, which occurs as calcite. (Section 23.1)
A point in space where the value of a wave function is zero
Possessing the ability to rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)
pi 1P2 bond
A covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated above and below the internuclear axis. (Section 9.6)
An electrically charged group of two or more atoms. (Section 2.7)
A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)
An equation thatdescribes the relationship between the rate of a reactionand the concentration of reactants.
A series of intermediates and curved arrows that show howthe reaction occurs in terms of the motion of electrons.
reducing agent, or reductant
The substance that is oxidized and thereby causes the reduction of some other substance in an oxidation–reduction reaction. (Section 20.1)
Resonance in NMR spectroscopy
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a precessing nucleus and the resulting “fl ip” of its nuclear spin from the lower energy state to the higher energy state.