Solutions for Chapter 11.2: The Structure of Benzene
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Rainwater that has become excessively acidic because of absorption of pollutant oxides, notably SO3, produced by human activities. (Section 18.2)
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms react with a double bond, forming a compound with the two new groups bonded to the carbons of the original double bond.
Hydrocarbons that do not contain the benzene group or the benzene ring. (24.1)
Hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon–carbon triple bonds. (Section 24.2)
The lowest energy conformation for cyclohexane, in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5° and all hydrogen atoms are staggered.
A state in which the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal. (14.1)
A shift of an equilibrium induced by an ion common to the equilibrium. For example, added Na2SO4 decreases the solubility of the slightly soluble salt BaSO4, or added NaF decreases the percent ionization of HF. (Section 17.1)
conjugate acid–base pair
An acid and a base, such as H2O and OH-, that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton. (Section 16.2)
coupling (of radicals)
A radical process in which two radicals join together and form a bond.
Dalton’s law of partial pressures
A law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone. (Section 10.6)
The branch of chemistry that deals with the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. (Chapter 20: Introduction)
A property of the electron that makes it behave as though it were a tiny magnet. The electron behaves as if it were spinning on its axis; electron spin is quantized. (Section 6.7)
A substance that consists of a single enantiomer, and not its mirror image.
A compound containing a hydroxyl group (OH) connected directly to a carbon-carbon double bond.
A protein molecule that acts to catalyze specific biochemical reactions. (Section 14.7)
The charge on an atom in a polyatomic ion or molecule
An atom or group of atoms that imparts characteristic chemical properties to an organic compound. (Section 24.1)
A reaction in which a methyl ketone is converted into a carboxylic acid upon treatment with excess base and excess halogen, followed by aqueous acid.
high-resolution mass spectrometry
A technique that involves the use of a detector that can measure the m/z values to four decimal places.This technique allows for the determination of the molecular formula of an unknown compound.
A diagram that shows the energies of molecular orbitals relative to the atomic orbitals from which they are derived; also called an energy-level diagram. (Section 9.7)
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