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Solutions for Chapter 11.12: Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A molecule containing two !OR or !OAr groups bonded to the same carbon
A carboxylic acid that contains an amino 1¬NH22 group attached to the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxylic acid 1¬COOH2 functional group. (Section 24.7)
Aryl group (Ar -)
A group derived from an arene by removal of an H.
The number of bonding electron pairs shared between two atoms, minus the number of antibonding electron pairs: bond order = (number of bonding electrons - number of antibonding electrons)/2. (Section 9.7)
The difference between the numbers of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals and antibonding molecular orbitals, divided by two. (10.7)
Representations of a molecule or ion that differ only in the distribution of valence electrons.
A bond formed between two or more atoms by a sharing of electrons. (Section 8.1)
A molecule with one end having a partial negative charge and the other end having a partial positive charge; a polar molecule. (Section 8.4)
A measure of the ability of an atom that is bonded to another atom to attract electrons to itself. (Section 8.4)
In Diels-Alder reactions that produce bicyclic structures, the positions that are anti to the larger bridge.
A charge associated with any atom that does not exhibit the appropriate number of valence electrons.
The attractive interaction between a hydrogen atom bonded to an atom of high electronegativity (most commonly O or N) and a lone pair of electrons on another atom of high electronegativity (again, most commonly O or N).
The tendency of nonpolar groups to cluster so as to shield them from contact with an aqueous environment.
Different compounds with the same molecular formula.
Atoms of the same element containing different numbers of neutrons and therefore having different masses. (Section 2.3)
Molecular dipole moment (m)
The vector sum of individual bond dipoles.
A chemical formula that indicates the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance. (Section 2.6)
A solid whose dimensions range from 1 to 100 nm and whose properties differ from those of a bulk material with the same composition. (Section 12.1)
A rule stating that bonded atoms tend to possess or share a total of eight valence-shell electrons. (Section 8.1)
The sequence of amino acids along a protein chain. (Section 24.7)