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Solutions for Chapter 12.3: Nitration of Benzene
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A peroxide for which each oxygen atom is connected to an acyl group. Acyl peroxides are often used as radical initiators, because the O!O bond is especially weak.
Polymerization that occurs through coupling of monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction. (Section 12.8)
The hemiacetal or acetal carbon of the cyclic form of a carbohydrate
The SI unit of radioactivity. It corresponds to one nuclear disintegration per second. (Section 21.4)
boiling-point elevation (DTb).
The boiling point of the solution (Tb) minus the boiling point of the pure solvent (T° b). (12.6)
A dispersion of particles of one substance (the dispersed phase) throughout a dispersing medium made of another substance. (12.8)
The pressure at which a gas at its critical temperature is converted to a liquid state. (Section 11.4)
A molecule containing an !S!S! group
A compound containing a hydroxyl group (OH) connected directly to a carbon-carbon double bond.
First ionization potential
The energy needed to remove the most loosely held electron from an atom or molecule.
The process by which a protein adopts its biologically active shape. (Section 24.7)
A cyclic compound containing at least one heteroatom (such as S, N, or O) in the ring.
In radical reaction mechanisms, a step in which radicals are created.
A cyclic ester.
Finely powdered palladium metal deposited on solid calcium carbonate that has been specially modifi ed with lead salts. Its particular use is as a catalyst for the reduction of an alkyne to a cis alkene
Naturally occurring compoundsthat can be extracted from cells usingnonpolar organic solvents.
Melt transition (Tm)
The temperature at which crystalline regions of a polymer melt.
A reaction in which an acid and a base react in stoichiometrically equivalent amounts; the neutralization reaction between an acid and a metal hydroxide produces water and a salt. (Section 4.3)
From the Greek meaning nucleus-loving. Any species that can donate a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond; alternatively, a Lewis base
A polymer in which each monomer unit is joined to the next by an ester bond, as, for example, poly(ethylene terephthalate).