Solutions for Chapter 12.10: Rate and Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 12.10: Rate and Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene

Solutions for Chapter 12.10
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Organic Chemistry, was written by Patricia and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Since 1 problems in chapter 12.10: Rate and Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene have been answered, more than 12590 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter 12.10: Rate and Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • amino acid

    A compound containing a carboxylic acid group (COOH) as well as an amino group (NH2).

  • antibonding molecular orbital

    A molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated outside the region between the two nuclei of bonded atoms. Such orbitals, designated as s* or p*, are less stable (of higher energy) than bonding molecular orbitals. (Section 9.7)

  • beta elimination

    An elimination reaction in which a proton from the beta (b) position is removed together with the leaving group, forming a double bond.

  • bromonium ion

    A positively charged, bridged intermediate formed during the addition reaction that occurs when an alkene is treated with molecular bromine (Br2).

  • Carboxylic ester

    A derivative of a carboxylic acid in which H of the carboxyl group is replaced by a carbon.

  • chemical properties

    Properties that describe a substance’s composition and its reactivity; how the substance reacts or changes into other substances. (Section 1.3)

  • Chiral center

    A tetrahedral atom, most commonly carbon, that is bonded to four different groups; also called a chirality center

  • diatomic molecule

    A molecule composed of only two atoms. (Section 2.6)

  • force

    A push or a pull. (Section 5.1)

  • hydrophobic

    A nonpolar group that does not have favorable interactions with water.

  • linkage isomers

    Structural isomers of coordination compounds in which a ligand differs in its mode of attachment to a metal ion. (Section 23.4)

  • metal complex

    An assembly of a metal ion and the Lewis bases bonded to it. (Section 23.2)

  • Organic synthesis

    A series of reactions by which a set of organic starting materials is converted to a more complicated structure.

  • oxonium ion

    An intermediate with a positively charged oxygen atom.

  • Pi (p) bond

    A covalent bond formed by the overlap of parallel 2p orbitals.

  • proteins

    Polypeptide chains comprised of more than 40 or 50 amino acids.

  • sp3-hybridized orbitals

    Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with three p orbitals to form four hybridized atomic orbitals.

  • three-center, two-electron bonds

    A bond in which two electrons are associated with three atoms, such as in diborane (B2H6).

  • weak deactivators

    Groups that weakly deactivate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby decreasing the rate of the reaction.

  • Wittig reagent

    A reagent used to perform a Wittig reaction.

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