- 184.108.40.206: Write structural formulas for the cyclohexadienyl cations formed fr...
- 220.127.116.11: Treatment of biphenyl (see Section 11.5 to remind yourself of its s...
Solutions for Chapter 12.12: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Activating Substituents
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 12.12: Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Activating SubstituentsGet Full Solutions
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of exactly 180°.
A self-contained electrochemical power source that contains one or more voltaic cells. (Section 20.7)
Compounds formed from just two elements. (2.7)
bonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which the electron density is concentrated in the internuclear region. The energy of a bonding molecular orbital is lower than the energy of the separate atomic orbitals from which it forms. (Section 9.7)
A term describing a molecule or an ion that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. (Sections 23.4 and 24.5)
critical temperature (Tc).
The temperature above which a gas will not liquefy. (11.8)
The process in which molecules, ions, or atoms come together to form a crystalline solid. (Section 13.2)
A carbohydrate for whichthe chirality center farthest from the carbonylgroup will have an OH group pointing to theright in the Fischer projection.
A compound that rotates plane-polarized light in a clockwise direction (+).
A term associatedwith the probability of finding an electron in aparticular region of space.
A state of a system at higher energy than the ground state.
An atom or group of atoms that imparts characteristic chemical properties to an organic compound. (Section 24.1)
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Plasma particles, density 1.06–1.21 g/mL, consisting of approximately 33% proteins, 30% cholesterol, 29% phospholipids, and 8% triglycerides.
An !OH group
A substance that exhibits one or more partially ordered liquid phases above the melting point of the solid form. By contrast, in nonliquid crystalline substances the liquid phase that forms upon melting is completely unordered. (Section 11.7)
parts per billion (ppb)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
A term used to indicate that exactly one alkyl group is attached directly to a particular position. For example, a primary carbocation has one alkyl group (not more) attached directly to the electrophilic carbon atom (C+).
An equation thatdescribes the relationship between the rate of a reactionand the concentration of reactants.
A high-energy species formed between two successive reaction steps, that lies in an energy minimum between the two transition states
A theory that many molecules and ions are best described as a hybrid of several Lewis structures