Solutions for Chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
The product formed when the !CHO group of an aldose is oxidized to a !COOH group
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of approximately 180°.
A unit of pressure equal to 760 torr; 1 atm = 101.325 kPa. (Section 10.2) atom The smallest representative particle of an element. (Sections 1.1 and 2.1)
The peak caused by the most abundant ion in a mass spectrum; the most intense peak. It is assigned an arbitrary intensity of 100
Valence electrons involved in forming a covalent bond (i.e., shared electrons).
conservation of orbital symmetry
During a reaction, the requirement that the phases of the frontier MOs must be aligned.
A bond that results when two atoms share a pair of electrons.
A symbol used to show the redistribution of valence electrons in resonance contributing structures or reactions, symbolizing movement of two electrons
A compound containing two hydroxyl groups (OH).
The measure of disorder associated with a system.
A barbed curved arrow used to show the change in position of a single electron.
A charge associated with any atom that does not exhibit the appropriate number of valence electrons.
The steric interaction that results when two groups in a Newman projection are separated by a dihedral angle of 60°.
An amorphous solid formed by fusion of SiO2, CaO, and Na2O. Other oxides may also be used to form glasses with differing characteristics. (Section 22.10)
In NMR spectroscopy, a technique in which only the one-bond couplings are observed. CH3 groups appear as quartets, CH2 groups appear as triplets, CH groups appear as doublets, and quaternary carbon atoms appear as singlets.
Pauli exclusion principle
A rule stating that no two electrons in an atom may have the same four quantum numbers (n, l, ml, and ms). As a reflection of this principle, there can be no more than two electrons in any one atomic orbital. (Section 6.7)
pH titration curve
A graph of pH as a function of added titrant. (Section 17.3)
A ligand in which two or more donor atoms can coordinate to the same metal ion. (Section 23.3)
A step-by-step description of how a chemical reaction occurs.
Valence Bond Theory
A model of bonding that places electron pairs between adjacent atoms to create bonds.
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