Solutions for Chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds

Solutions for Chapter 12.18
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Chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. Since 1 problems in chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds have been answered, more than 11000 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Organic Chemistry, was written by Patricia and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • Aldonic acid

    The product formed when the !CHO group of an aldose is oxidized to a !COOH group

  • anti-periplanar

    A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are separated by a dihedral angle of approximately 180°.

  • atmosphere (atm)

    A unit of pressure equal to 760 torr; 1 atm = 101.325 kPa. (Section 10.2) atom The smallest representative particle of an element. (Sections 1.1 and 2.1)

  • Base peak

    The peak caused by the most abundant ion in a mass spectrum; the most intense peak. It is assigned an arbitrary intensity of 100

  • Bonding electrons

    Valence electrons involved in forming a covalent bond (i.e., shared electrons).

  • conservation of orbital symmetry

    During a reaction, the requirement that the phases of the frontier MOs must be aligned.

  • covalent bond

    A bond that results when two atoms share a pair of electrons.

  • Curved arrow

    A symbol used to show the redistribution of valence electrons in resonance contributing structures or reactions, symbolizing movement of two electrons

  • diol

    A compound containing two hydroxyl groups (OH).

  • entropy

    The measure of disorder associated with a system.

  • Fishhook arrow

    A barbed curved arrow used to show the change in position of a single electron.

  • formal charge

    A charge associated with any atom that does not exhibit the appropriate number of valence electrons.

  • gauche interaction

    The steric interaction that results when two groups in a Newman projection are separated by a dihedral angle of 60°.

  • glass

    An amorphous solid formed by fusion of SiO2, CaO, and Na2O. Other oxides may also be used to form glasses with differing characteristics. (Section 22.10)

  • off-resonance decoupling

    In NMR spectroscopy, a technique in which only the one-bond couplings are observed. CH3 groups appear as quartets, CH2 groups appear as triplets, CH groups appear as doublets, and quaternary carbon atoms appear as singlets.

  • Pauli exclusion principle

    A rule stating that no two electrons in an atom may have the same four quantum numbers (n, l, ml, and ms). As a reflection of this principle, there can be no more than two electrons in any one atomic orbital. (Section 6.7)

  • pH titration curve

    A graph of pH as a function of added titrant. (Section 17.3)

  • polydentate ligand

    A ligand in which two or more donor atoms can coordinate to the same metal ion. (Section 23.3)

  • Reaction mechanism

    A step-by-step description of how a chemical reaction occurs.

  • Valence Bond Theory

    A model of bonding that places electron pairs between adjacent atoms to create bonds.

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