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Solutions for Chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds

Solutions for Chapter 12.18
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Chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. Since 1 problems in chapter 12.18: Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds have been answered, more than 28179 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Organic Chemistry, was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • alkoxide

    The conjugate base of an alcohol.

  • autooxidation

    The slow oxidation of organic compounds that occurs in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

  • Conjugate addition

    Addition of a nucleophile to the b-carbon of an a,b-unsaturated carbonyl compound. (Section 20.2A) Addition to carbons 1 and 4 of a conjugated diene.

  • Downfield

    A signal of an NMR spectrum that is shifted toward the left (larger chemical shift) on the chart paper.

  • electrocyclic reaction

    A pericyclic process in which a conjugated polyene undergoes cyclization. In the process, one p bond is converted into a s bond, while the remaining p bonds all change their location. The newly formed s bond joins the ends of the original p system,thereby creating a ring.

  • electrophile

    A compound containing an electron-deficient atom that is capable of accepting a pair of electrons.

  • enantiotopic

    Protons that are not interchangeable by rotational symmetry but are interchangeable by reflectional symmetry.

  • excited state

    A higher energy state than the ground state. (Section 6.3)

  • hyperconjugation

    An effect that explains why alkyl groups stabilize a carbocation.

  • Index of hydrogen defi ciency

    The sum of the number of rings and p bonds in a molecule.

  • J value

    When signal splitting occurs in 1H NMR spectroscopy, the distance (in hertz) between the individual peaks of a signal.

  • Lewis structure

    A representation of covalent bonding in a molecule that is drawn using Lewis symbols. Shared electron pairs are shown as lines, and unshared electron pairs are shown as pairs of dots. Only the valence-shell electrons are shown. (Section 8.3)

  • Molecular spectroscopy

    The study of which frequencies of radiation are absorbed or emitted by a particular substance and the correlation of these frequencies with details of molecular structure.

  • nonelectrolyte

    A substance that does not ionize in water and consequently gives a nonconducting solution. (Section 4.1)

  • Pericyclic reaction

    A reaction that takes place in a single step, without intermediates, and involves a cyclic redistribution of bonding electrons

  • pressure–volume (PV) work

    Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)

  • prosthetic group

    A nonprotein unit attached to a protein, such as heme in hemoglobin.

  • proton

    A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. (Section 2.3)

  • sulfonation

    An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction in which an SO3H group is installed on an aromatic ring.

  • Valence shell

    The outermost occupied electron shell of an atom.

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