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Solutions for Chapter 16.6: The Williamson Ether Synthesis
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A radical reaction that achieves installation of a bromine atom at an allylic position.
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction in which an aryldiazonium salt reacts with an activated aromatic ring.
In SN2 reactions, the side opposite the leaving group, which is where the nucleophile attacks.
A measure of the degree to which the electrons are shared unequally between two atoms in a chemical bond. (Section 8.4)
A step in a chain reaction that involves destruction of reactive intermediates
The separation on an NMR spectrum (in hertz) between adjacent peaks in a multiplet and a quantitative measure of the infl uence of the spin-spin coupling with adjacent nuclei.
For a substitutedaromatic ring, the effect of an electronwithdrawingsubstituent that decreases therate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
A unit of measure fordipole moments, where 1 debye = 10-18 esu×cm.
Enthalpy change, DH
The difference in total bond strengths and solvation between various points under comparison on a reaction coordinate diagram
CFCs that were heavily used for a wide variety of commercial applications, including as refrigerants, as propellants, in the production of foam insulation, as fire-fighting materials, and many other useful applications.
The bond from the anomeric carbon of a glycoside to an !OR group
hydronium ion 1H3O+2
The predominant form of the proton in aqueous solution. (Section 16.2)
Hückel criteria for aromaticity
To be aromatic, a monocyclic compound must have one 2p orbital on each atom of the ring, be planar or nearly so, and have (4n 1 2) p electrons in the cyclic arrangement of 2p orbitals
The group that is displaced in a substitution reaction or the Lewis base that is lost in an elimination reaction
A magneticfield generated by a spinning proton.
Bonding, usually in solid metals, in which the bonding electrons are relatively free to move throughout the three-dimensional structure. (Section 8.1)
Solids that are composed of molecules. (Sections 12.1 and 12.6)
A kinetic property measured by the rate at which a nucleophile causes nucleophilic substitution on a reference compound under a standardized set of experimental conditions.
The product formed when a nucleoside is coupled to a phosphate group
A complex derived from the porphine molecule. (Section 23.3)