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Solutions for Chapter 18.4: Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
The positions that are adjacent to the vinylic positions of a carboncarbon double bond.
A solid that lacks a regular three-dimensional arrangement of atoms or molecules. (11.7)
An estimate of the size of an atom. See bonding atomic radius. (Section 7.3)
beta (b) anomer
The cyclic hemiacetal of an aldose, in which the hydroxyl group at the anomeric position is cis to the CH2OH group.
A compound that can speed up the rate of a reaction without itself being consumed by the reaction.
cholesteric liquid crystalline phase
A liquid crystal formed from flat, disc-shaped molecules that align through a stacking of the molecular discs. (Section 11.7)
Polymerization in which molecules are joined together through condensation reactions. (Section 12.8)
A complex polymer resulting from the polymerization of two or more chemically different monomers. (Section 12.8)
The electrons that are not in the outermost shell of an atom. (Section 6.8)
Atoms or groups on an atom that give a chiral center when one of the groups is replaced by another group. A pair of enantiomers results. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are enantiotopic. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol. Enantiotopic groups have identical chemical shifts in achiral environments but different chemical shifts in chiral environments.
Faraday constant (F )
The magnitude of charge of one mole of electrons: 96,500 C>mol. (Section 20.5)
The lowest energy state of a system.
A compound of the type CHX3 where X is a halogen.
The equilibrium established between substances in two or more different phases, for example, between a gas and a solid or between a solid and a liquid. (Section 15.4)
An electron-pair donor. (Section 16.11)
A compound that does not rotate plane-polarized light.
The general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories, and laws. (Section 1.3)
second law of thermodynamics
A statement of our experience that there is a direction to the way events occur in nature. When a process occurs spontaneously in one direction, it is nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. It is possible to state the second law in many different forms, but they all relate back to the same idea about spontaneity. One of the most common statements found in chemical contexts is that in any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases. (Section 19.2)
The threedimensional conformations of localized regions of a protein, including helices and b-pleated sheets.
A term used to indicate that a certain volume of a compound will dissolve in a specified amount of a liquid at room temperature.