- 188.8.131.52: (a) Lactic acid has a pKa of 3.9. What is the [lactate]/[lactic aci...
- 184.108.40.206: When benzoic acid is allowed to stand in water enriched in 18O, the...
Solutions for Chapter 18.4: Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
The resonancestabilized, cationic intermediate of a Friedel-Crafts acylation, formed by treating an acyl halide with aluminum trichloride.
A compound that contains both an amino group and a carboxyl group
A method for preparing primary amines that avoids the formation of secondary and tertiary amines.
A rule that states that it is not possible for a bridgehead carbon of a bicyclic system to possess a carbon carbon double bond if it involves a trans p bond being incorporated in a ring comprised of fewer than eight atoms.
In a bicyclic system, the carbon atoms where the rings are fused together.
A substance (molecule or ion) that acts as a proton donor. (Section 16.2)
A class of substances formed from polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones. (Section 24.8)
A structure that bears a positive charge.
changes of state
Transformations of matter from one state to a different one, for example, from a gas to a liquid. (Section 1.3)
A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)
A unimolecular elimination reaction.
electromagnetic radiation (radiant energy)
A form of energy that has wave characteristics and that propagates through a vacuum at the characteristic speed of 3.00 * 108 m >s. (Section 6.1)
An electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction that installs an alkyl group on an aromatic ring.
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with nonmetals and metalloids. (Section 22.2)
An equation that relates the cell emf, E, to the standard emf, E°, and the reaction quotient, Q: E = E° - 1RT>nF2 ln Q. (Section 20.6)
The pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis from pure solvent into the solution. (Section 13.5)
The special name given to the amide bond formed between the a-amino group of one amino acid and the a-carboxyl group of another amino acid
secondary alkyl halide
An organohalide in which the alpha (a) position is connected to exactly two alkyl groups.
A mixture of substances that has a uniform composition; a homogeneous mixture. (Section 1.2)
A double-helix model for the secondary structure of a DNA molecule