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Solutions for Chapter 18.6: Ionization of Substituted Benzoic Acids
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A list of metals in order of decreasing ease of oxidation. (Section 4.4)
An ion with a net negative charge. (2.5)
A polymer with completely random confi gurations at the chiral centers along its chain, as, for example, atactic polypropylene
The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at which chemical reactions occur. (13.1)
A reaction in which an element reacts with a compound, displacing an element from it. (Section 4.4)
For alkenes, a stereodescriptorthat indicates that the two priority groups are on opposite sides of the p bond.
The practice in which water laden with sand and other materials is pumped at high pressure into rock formations to release natural gas and other petroleum materials. (Section 18.4)
Matter that has no fixed volume or shape; it conforms to the volume and shape of its container. (Section 1.2)
Gibbs free energy change (DG°)
The energy that dictates the position of chemical equilibria and rates of chemical reactions. A thermodynamic function of enthalpy, entropy, and temperature, given by the equation DG° 5 DH° 2 TDS°. If DG° , 0, the position of equilibria for the reaction favors products. If DG° . 0, the position of equilibria favors reactants.
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with transition metals; these compounds contain the hydride ion, H-. (Section 22.2)
A form of isomerism in which the two forms of a compound (stereoisomers) are nonsuperimposable mirror images. (Section 23.4)
The row of elements that lie in a horizontal row in the periodic table. (Section 2.5)
A form of lipid molecule that contains charged phosphate groups. (Section 24.9)
An insoluble substance that forms in, and separates from, a solution. (Section 4.2)
The determination of the amount of a given substance that is present in a sample. (Section 17.7)
A lipid that does not undergo hydrolysis in aqueous acid or base to produce smaller fragments.
Stork enamine synthesis
A Michaelreaction in which an enamine functions as anucleophile.
In radical reactions, a step in which two radicals are joined to give a compound with no unshared electrons.
Tertiary structure of nucleic acids
The threedimensional arrangement of all atoms of a nucleic acid, commonly referred to as supercoiling
In bond-line structures, a group in front of the page.
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