Solutions for Chapter 18.9: Carbonic Acid
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
A peroxide for which each oxygen atom is connected to an acyl group. Acyl peroxides are often used as radical initiators, because the O!O bond is especially weak.
addition to p bond
One of the six kinds of arrow-pushing patterns used in drawing mechanisms for radical reactions. A radical adds to a p bond, destroying the p bond and generating a new radical.
Antibonding molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electrons have a higher energy than they would in isolated atomic orbitals
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure. (5.2)
In a bicyclic system, the carbon atoms where the rings are fused together.
A solution of (a) a weak acid or base and (b) its salt; both components must be present. The solution has the ability to resist changes in pH upon the addition of small amounts of either acid or base. (16.3)
A form of carbon produced when wood is heated strongly in a deficiency of air. (Section 22.9)
complete ionic equation
A chemical equation in which dissolved strong electrolytes (such as dissolved ionic compounds) are written as separate ions. (Section 4.2)
conjugate acid–base pair
An acid and a base, such as H2O and OH-, that differ only in the presence or absence of a proton. (Section 16.2)
An effect that causes different regions of space to be characterized by different magnetic field strengths.
Refers to the steric strain arising from interaction between an axial substituent and an axial hydrogen (or other group) on the same side of a chair conformation of a cyclohexane ring
A term associatedwith the probability of finding an electron in aparticular region of space.
Any process with a negative DG.
law of mass action
The rules by which the equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of the concentrations of reactants and products, in accordance with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (Section 15.2)
localized lone pair
A lone pair thatis not participating in resonance.
metallic elements (metals)
Elements that are usually solids at room temperature, exhibit high electrical and heat conductivity, and appear lustrous. Most of the elements in the periodic table are metals. (Sections 2.5 and 12.1)
A C6H5 group.
Elimination of two substituents at a metal center, causing the oxidation state of the metal to decrease by two.
Sigma (s) molecular orbital
A molecular orbital in which electron density is concentrated between two nuclei, along the axis joining them, and is cylindrically symmetrical
Compounds with the following structure: R!C#C!H
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