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Solutions for Chapter 18.11: Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard Reagents

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 18.11: Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard Reagents

Solutions for Chapter 18.11
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This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Organic Chemistry, was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741. Chapter 18.11: Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard Reagents includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9. Since 1 problems in chapter 18.11: Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard Reagents have been answered, more than 36682 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • [4+2]-cycloaddition

    A pericyclic reaction, also called a Diels-Alder reaction, that takes place between two different p systems, one of which is associated with four atoms while the other is associated with two atoms.

  • Aldose

    A monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group

  • Bond dissociation enthalpy

    The amount of energy required to break a bond into two radicals in the gas phase at 25°C, A!B !> A• 1 •B

  • bond length.

    The distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule. (9.4)

  • enantiomeric excess

    For a mixture containing two enantiomers, the difference between the percent concentration of the major enantiomer and the percent concentration of its mirror image.

  • Endergonic reaction

    A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is higher than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an endergonic reaction favors starting materials

  • glycoside

    An acetal that is obtained by treating the cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide with an alcohol under acid-catalyzed conditions.

  • Hückel criteria for aromaticity

    To be aromatic, a monocyclic compound must have one 2p orbital on each atom of the ring, be planar or nearly so, and have (4n 1 2) p electrons in the cyclic arrangement of 2p orbitals

  • intensive property

    A property that is independent of the amount of material considered, for example, density. (Section 1.3)

  • Ketose

    A monosaccharide containing a ketone group.

  • lone pair

    A pair of unshared, or nonbonding, electrons.

  • micelle

    A group of molecules arranged in a sphere such that the surface of the sphere is comprised of polar groups, rendering the micelle water soluble.

  • pressure–volume (PV) work

    Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)

  • primary structure

    For proteins, the sequence of amino acid residues.

  • Pro-R-hydrogen

    Replacing this hydrogen by deuterium gives a chiral center with an R confi guration

  • radiotracer

    A radioisotope that can be used to trace the path of an element in a chemical system. (Section 21.5)

  • reaction mechanism

    A detailed picture, or model, of how the reaction occurs; that is, the order in which bonds are broken and formed and the changes in relative positions of the atoms as the reaction proceeds. (Section 14.6)

  • Rearrangement

    A change in connectivity of the atoms in a product compared with the con nectivity of the same atoms in the starting material.

  • Staggered conformation

    A conformation about a carbon-carbon single bond in which the atoms or groups on one carbon are as far apart as possible from atoms or groups on an adjacent carbon.

  • third order

    A reaction that has a rate equation in which the sum of all exponents is three

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