Solutions for Chapter 18.11: Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard Reagents
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 18.11: Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard ReagentsGet Full Solutions
A pericyclic reaction, also called a Diels-Alder reaction, that takes place between two different p systems, one of which is associated with four atoms while the other is associated with two atoms.
A monosaccharide containing an aldehyde group
Bond dissociation enthalpy
The amount of energy required to break a bond into two radicals in the gas phase at 25°C, A!B !> A• 1 •B
The distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule. (9.4)
For a mixture containing two enantiomers, the difference between the percent concentration of the major enantiomer and the percent concentration of its mirror image.
A reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is higher than that of the reactants. The position of equilibrium for an endergonic reaction favors starting materials
An acetal that is obtained by treating the cyclic hemiacetal form of a monosaccharide with an alcohol under acid-catalyzed conditions.
Hückel criteria for aromaticity
To be aromatic, a monocyclic compound must have one 2p orbital on each atom of the ring, be planar or nearly so, and have (4n 1 2) p electrons in the cyclic arrangement of 2p orbitals
A property that is independent of the amount of material considered, for example, density. (Section 1.3)
A monosaccharide containing a ketone group.
A pair of unshared, or nonbonding, electrons.
A group of molecules arranged in a sphere such that the surface of the sphere is comprised of polar groups, rendering the micelle water soluble.
pressure–volume (PV) work
Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure. (Section 5.3)
For proteins, the sequence of amino acid residues.
Replacing this hydrogen by deuterium gives a chiral center with an R confi guration
A radioisotope that can be used to trace the path of an element in a chemical system. (Section 21.5)
A detailed picture, or model, of how the reaction occurs; that is, the order in which bonds are broken and formed and the changes in relative positions of the atoms as the reaction proceeds. (Section 14.6)
A change in connectivity of the atoms in a product compared with the con nectivity of the same atoms in the starting material.
A conformation about a carbon-carbon single bond in which the atoms or groups on one carbon are as far apart as possible from atoms or groups on an adjacent carbon.
A reaction that has a rate equation in which the sum of all exponents is three