Solutions for Chapter 19.14: Lactams

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition

ISBN: 9780073402741

Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780073402741 | Authors: Francis A Carey Dr., Robert M. Giuliano

Solutions for Chapter 19.14: Lactams

Solutions for Chapter 19.14
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This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Organic Chemistry, , edition: 9. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter 19.14: Lactams includes 1 full step-by-step solutions. Since 1 problems in chapter 19.14: Lactams have been answered, more than 10956 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Organic Chemistry, was written by Patricia and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073402741.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • absolute zero.

    Theoretically the lowest attainable temperature. (5.3)

  • absorbance

    In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the value log (I0/I) where I0 is the intensity of the reference beam and I is the intensity of the sample beam.

  • acylium ion

    The resonancestabilized, cationic intermediate of a Friedel-Crafts acylation, formed by treating an acyl halide with aluminum trichloride.

  • atomic radius.

    One-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. For elements that exist as diatomic units, the atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms in a particular molecule. (8.3)

  • chromophore

    In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the region of the molecule responsible for the absorption (the conjugated p system).

  • conduction band

    A band of molecular orbitals lying higher in energy than the occupied valence band and distinctly separated from it. (Section 12.7)

  • degenerate

    A situation in which two or more orbitals have the same energy. (Section 6.7)

  • dissolving metal reduction

    A reaction in which an alkyne is converted into a trans alkene.

  • electron impact ionization (EI)

    In mass spectrometry, an ionization technique that involves bombarding a compoundwith high-energy electrons.

  • entropy

    A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)

  • exothermic

    Any process with a negative DH (the system gives energy to the surroundings).

  • gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer

    A device used for the analysis of a mixture that contains several compounds.

  • Henry’s law

    A law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution, Sg, is proportional to the pressure of gas over the solution: Sg = kPg. (Section 13.3)

  • labile

    Protons that are exchanged at a rapid rate.

  • mass spectrometer

    A device inwhich a compound is first vaporized and convertedinto ions, which are then separated anddetected.

  • Micelle

    A spherical arrangement of organic molecules in water solution clustered so that their hydrophobic parts are buried inside the sphere and their hydrophilic parts are on the surface of the sphere and in contact with water

  • plane-polarized light

    Light for which all photons have the same polarization, generally formed by passing light through a polarizing filter.

  • primary alkyl halide

    An organohalide in which the alpha (a) position is connected to only one alkyl group.

  • termolecular

    For mechanisms, a step that involves three chemical entities.

  • weak deactivators

    Groups that weakly deactivate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby decreasing the rate of the reaction.

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