Solutions for Chapter 19.14: Lactams
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Theoretically the lowest attainable temperature. (5.3)
In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the value log (I0/I) where I0 is the intensity of the reference beam and I is the intensity of the sample beam.
The resonancestabilized, cationic intermediate of a Friedel-Crafts acylation, formed by treating an acyl halide with aluminum trichloride.
One-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent atoms of the same element in a metal. For elements that exist as diatomic units, the atomic radius is one-half the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms in a particular molecule. (8.3)
In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the region of the molecule responsible for the absorption (the conjugated p system).
A band of molecular orbitals lying higher in energy than the occupied valence band and distinctly separated from it. (Section 12.7)
A situation in which two or more orbitals have the same energy. (Section 6.7)
dissolving metal reduction
A reaction in which an alkyne is converted into a trans alkene.
electron impact ionization (EI)
In mass spectrometry, an ionization technique that involves bombarding a compoundwith high-energy electrons.
A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a system—that is, the temperature, pressure, and so on—the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)
Any process with a negative DH (the system gives energy to the surroundings).
gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer
A device used for the analysis of a mixture that contains several compounds.
A law stating that the concentration of a gas in a solution, Sg, is proportional to the pressure of gas over the solution: Sg = kPg. (Section 13.3)
Protons that are exchanged at a rapid rate.
A device inwhich a compound is first vaporized and convertedinto ions, which are then separated anddetected.
A spherical arrangement of organic molecules in water solution clustered so that their hydrophobic parts are buried inside the sphere and their hydrophilic parts are on the surface of the sphere and in contact with water
Light for which all photons have the same polarization, generally formed by passing light through a polarizing filter.
primary alkyl halide
An organohalide in which the alpha (a) position is connected to only one alkyl group.
For mechanisms, a step that involves three chemical entities.
Groups that weakly deactivate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby decreasing the rate of the reaction.
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