- 220.127.116.11: Write the structure of the aldol addition product of each of the fo...
- 18.104.22.168: Write the structure of the aldol condensation product of each of th...
- 22.214.171.124: Each of the following can be prepared by an intramolecular aldol co...
Solutions for Chapter 20.3: The Aldol Condensation
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon–carbon double bonds. (Section 24.2)
The basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination. (2.2)
A substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. (1.4)
A molecule composed of only two atoms. (Section 2.6)
effective nuclear charge
The net positive charge experienced by an electron in a many-electron atom; this charge is not the full nuclear charge because there is some shielding of the nucleus by the other electrons in the atom. (Section 7.2)
A process in a chemical reaction that occurs in a single step. An overall chemical reaction consists of one or more elementary reactions or steps. (Section 14.6)
Fourier transform NMR (FT-NMR)
The modern NMR method that is based on a constant magnetic fi eld, a short pulse of electromagnetic radiation, and a mathematical Fourier transform to produce the spectrum
A carbohydrate in which the !OH on its anomeric carbon is replaced by !OR
A molecule containing an !OH and an !OR or !OAr group bonded to the same carbon
A method for converting an alkene to an alcohol. The alkene is treated with borane (BH3) to give a trialkylborane, which is then oxidized with alkaline hydrogen peroxide to give an alcohol
A compound thatrotates plane-polarized light in a counterclockwisedirection (-).
Compounds formed when hydrogen reacts with nonmetals and metalloids. (Section 22.2)
A system for naming organic compounds.
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally. (Section 8.4)
A nuclear decay process where a positron, a particle with the same mass as an electron but with a positive charge, symbol 0+1e, or b+ is emitted from the nucleus. (Section 21.1)
A high-energy species formed between two successive reaction steps, that lies in an energy minimum between the two transition states
retro Diels-Alder reaction
The reverse of a Diels-Alder reaction, achieved at high temperature. A cyclohexene derivative is converted into a diene and a dienophile.
The reverse of an aldol reaction. A b-hydroxyketone or aldehyde is converted into two ketones or aldehydes.
valence bond theory
A theory that treats a bond as the sharing of electrons that are associated with individual atoms, rather than being associated with the entire molecule.
Z (Section 5.2C)
From the German, zusammen, meaning opposite. Specifi es that groups of higher priority on the carbons of a double bond are on the same side