Solutions for Chapter 21.13: The Hofmann Elimination
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
An object that lacks chirality; an object that has no handedness
A carbocation in which an allylic carbon bears the positive charge.
beta (b) rays.
A series of reactions in which one reaction initiates the next. (Section 21.7)
Charles’ and Gay-Lussac’s law.
See Charles’ law.
A [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement that is observed for allylic vinylic ethers.
Confi gurational isomers
Isomers that differ by the confi guration of substituents on an atom. Refers to the arrangement of atoms about a stereocenter
The highest temperature at which it is possible to convert the gaseous form of a substance to a liquid. The critical temperature increases with an increase in the magnitude of intermolecular forces. (Section 11.4)
An ordered crystalline region in the solid state of a polymer. Also called a crystallite.
Fourier transform NMR (FT-NMR)
The modern NMR method that is based on a constant magnetic fi eld, a short pulse of electromagnetic radiation, and a mathematical Fourier transform to produce the spectrum
A compound of the type CHX3 where X is a halogen.
The tendency of nonpolar groups to cluster so as to shield them from contact with an aqueous environment.
A plot of the relative abundance of ions versus their mass-to-charge ratio
Order of precedence of functions
A ranking of functional groups in order of priority for the purposes of IUPAC nomenclature.
A property that a substance possesses if it contains one or more unpaired electrons. A paramagnetic substance is drawn into a magnetic field. (Section 9.8)
The breaking of a molecule into two or more neutral fragments as a result of absorption of light. (Section 18.2)
An instrument for measuring the ability of a compound to rotate the plane of plane-polarized light.
A term used to designate the configuration of a chirality center, determined in the following way: Each of the four groups is assigned a priority, and the molecule is then rotated (if necessary) so that the #4 group is directed behind the page (on a dash). A counterclockwise sequence for 1-2-3 is designated as S.
The addition of atoms or groups of atoms to the same face of a carbon-carbon double bond.
A process that involves the removal of a carbon atom from an aldose. The aldehyde group is first converted to a cyanohydrin, followed by loss of HCN in the presence of a base.
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