Solutions for Chapter 22.8: Reactions of Phenols: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Solutions for Chapter 22.8: Reactions of Phenols: Electrophilic Aromatic SubstitutionGet Full Solutions
A compound that contains at least one amino group and at least one carboxyl group. (25.3)
An equilibrium property measured by the position of equilibrium in an acid-base reaction, as, for example, the acid-base reaction between ammonia and water.
Bond dissociation enthalpy
The amount of energy required to break a bond into two radicals in the gas phase at 25°C, A!B !> A• 1 •B
The most common drawing style employed by organic chemists. All carbon atoms and most hydrogen atoms are implied but not explicitly drawn in a bond-line structure.
An atom or group of atoms bearing a positive charge.
A step in a chain reaction characterized by the reaction of a reactive intermediate and a molecule to give a new reactive intermediate and a new molecule.
A chemical reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more products. (Section 3.2)
A molecule with one end having a partial negative charge and the other end having a partial positive charge; a polar molecule. (Section 8.4)
The probability of finding an electron at any particular point in an atom; this probability is equal to c2, the square of the wave function. Also called the probability density. (Section 6.5)
A compound containing a carbon-nitrogen double bond, R2C"NR’; also called a Schiff base
An electronwithdrawing group that directs the regiochemistry of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction such that the incoming electrophile is installed at the meta position.
A reaction in which an acid and a base react in stoichiometrically equivalent amounts; the neutralization reaction between an acid and a metal hydroxide produces water and a salt. (Section 4.3)
A device that uses strong magnetic and electrostatic fields to accelerate charged particles. (Section 21.3)
A variety of enzymes that selectively hydrolyze specific peptide bonds.
A conformation in which a hydrogen atom and a leaving group are approximately coplanar.
A compound with a weak bond that undergoes homolytic bond cleavage with great ease, producing radicals that can initiate a radical chain process.
The reverse of an aldol reaction. A b-hydroxyketone or aldehyde is converted into two ketones or aldehydes.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A polynucleotide in which ribose is the sugar component. (Section 24.10)
A sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid
A reaction that obeys conservation of orbital symmetry.
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