Solutions for Chapter 22.9: Acylation of Phenols
Full solutions for Organic Chemistry, | 9th Edition
Hormones that are secreted by the cortex (the outer layer) of the adrenal glands. Adrenocortical hormones are typically characterized by a carbonyl group or hydroxyl group at C11 of the steroid skeleton.
The Group 1A elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr). (2.4)
alkaline earth metals.
The Group 2A elements (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra). (2.4)
Hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. They have the general formula CnH2n22, where n 5 2,3, . . . . (24.2)
A disordered, noncrystalline region in the solid state of a polymer.
A term describing a molecule or an ion that cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. (Sections 23.4 and 24.5)
A substance formed by the loss of a proton from a Brønsted–Lowry acid. (Section 16.2)
coupling (of radicals)
A radical process in which two radicals join together and form a bond.
The spreading of electron density over a larger volume of space.
The isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus contains a proton and a neutron: 2 1H. (Section 22.2)
One that occurs at constant temperature. (Section 19.1)
A model of enzyme action in which the substrate molecule is pictured as fitting rather specifically into the active site on the enzyme. It is assumed that in being bound to the active site, the substrate is somehow activated for reaction. (Section 14.7)
mean free path
The average distance traveled by a gas molecule between collisions. (Section 10.8)
Nonpolar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms whose difference in electronegativity is less than approximately 0.5.
From the Greek, poly 1 meros, meaning many parts. Any long-chain molecule synthesized by linking together many single parts called monomers
A six-membered cyclic form of a monosaccharide.
Atomic orbitals that are achieved by mathematically averaging one s orbital with two p orbitals to form three hybridized atomic orbitals.
A polymerization in which chain growth occurs in a stepwise manner between difunctional monomers as, for example, between adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine to form nylon 66. Also called condensation polymerization.
Experimental conditions that permit the establishment of equilibrium between two or more products of a reaction. The composition of the product mixture is determined by the relative stabilities of the products.
An excellent leaving group (OTs). transition state (Sect. 6.6): A state through which a reaction passes. On an energy diagram, a transition state corresponds with a local maximum.
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