 2.2.1: Provide mechanical and molecular definitions of work and heat.
 2.2.2: Consider the reversible expansion of a perfect gas. Provide a physi...
 2.2.3: Explain the difference between the change in internal energy and th...
 2.2.4: Explain the significance of a physical observable being a state fun...
 2.2.5: Explain the significance of the Joule and JouleThomson experiments....
 2.2.6: Suggest (with explanation) how the internal energy of a van der Waa...
 2.2.7: In many experimental thermograms, such as that shown in Fig. 2.16, ...
 2.2.1(a): Calculate the work needed for a 65 kg person to climb through 4.0 m...
 2.2.1(b): Calculate the work needed for a bird of mass 120 g to fly to a heig...
 2.2.2(a): A chemical reaction takes place in a container of crosssectional a...
 2.2.2(b): A chemical reaction takes place in a container of crosssectional a...
 2.2.3(a): A sample consisting of 1.00 mol Ar is expanded isothermally at 0C f...
 2.2.3(b): A sample consisting of 2.00 mol He is expanded isothermally at 22C ...
 2.2.4(a): A sample consisting of 1.00 mol of perfect gas atoms, for which CV,...
 2.2.4(b): A sample consisting of 2.00 mol of perfect gas molecules, for which...
 2.2.5(a): A sample of 4.50 g of methane occupies 12.7 dm3 at 310 K. (a) Calcu...
 2.2.5(b): A sample of argon of mass 6.56 g occupies 18.5 dm3 at 305 K. (a) Ca...
 2.2.6(a): A sample of 1.00 mol H2O(g) is condensed isothermally and reversibl...
 2.2.6(b): A sample of 2.00 mol CH3OH(g) is condensed isothermally and reversi...
 2.2.7(a): A strip of magnesium of mass 15 g is dropped into a beaker of dilut...
 2.2.7(b): A piece of zinc of mass 5.0 g is dropped into a beaker of dilute hy...
 2.2.8(a): The constantpressure heat capacity of a sample of a perfect gas wa...
 2.2.8(b): The constantpressure heat capacity of a sample of a perfect gas wa...
 2.2.9(a): Calculate the final temperature of a sample of argon of mass 12.0 g...
 2.2.9(b): Calculate the final temperature of a sample of carbon dioxide of ma...
 2.2.10(a): A sample of carbon dioxide of mass 2.45 g at 27.0C is allowed to ex...
 2.2.10(b): A sample of nitrogen of mass 3.12 g at 23.0C is allowed to expand r...
 2.2.11(a): Calculate the final pressure of a sample of carbon dioxide that exp...
 2.2.11(b): Calculate the final pressure of a sample of water vapour that expan...
 2.2.12(a): When 229 J of energy is supplied as heat to 3.0 mol Ar(g), the temp...
 2.2.12(b): When 178 J of energy is supplied as heat to 1.9 mol of gas molecule...
 2.2.13(a): When 3.0 mol O2 is heated at a constant pressure of 3.25 atm, its t...
 2.2.13(b): When 2.0 mol CO2 is heated at a constant pressure of 1.25 atm, its ...
 2.2.14(a): A sample of 4.0 mol O2 is originally confined in 20 dm3 at 270 K an...
 2.2.14(b): A sample of 5.0 mol CO2 is originally confined in 15 dm3 at 280 K a...
 2.2.15(a): A sample consisting of 1.0 mol of perfect gas molecules with CV = 2...
 2.2.15(b): A sample consisting of 1.5 mol of perfect gas molecules with Cp,m =...
 2.2.16(a): A certain liquid has vapH7 = 26.0 kJ mol1. Calculate q, w, H, and U...
 2.2.16(b): A certain liquid has vapH7 = 32.0 kJ mol1. Calculate q, w, H, and U...
 2.2.17(a): The standard enthalpy of formation of ethylbenzene is 12.5 kJ mol1....
 2.2.17(b): The standard enthalpy of formation of phenol is 165.0 kJ mol1. Calc...
 2.2.18(a): The standard enthalpy of combustion of cyclopropane is 2091 kJ mol1...
 2.2.18(b): From the following data, determine fH7 for diborane, B2H6(g), at 29...
 2.2.19(a): When 120 mg of naphthalene, C10H8(s), was burned in a bomb calorime...
 2.2.19(b): When 2.25 mg of anthracene, C14H10(s), was burned in a bomb calorim...
 2.2.20(a): Calculate the standard enthalpy of solution of AgCl(s) in water fro...
 2.2.20(b): Calculate the standard enthalpy of solution of AgBr(s) in water fro...
 2.2.21(a): The standard enthalpy of decomposition of the yellow complex H3NSO2...
 2.2.21(b): Given that the standard enthalpy of combustion of graphite is 393.5...
 2.2.22(a): Given the reactions (1) and (2) below, determine (a) rH7 and rU7 fo...
 2.2.22(b): Given the reactions (1) and (2) below, determine (a) rH7 and rU7 fo...
 2.2.23(a): For the reaction C2H5OH(l) + 3 O2(g)2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(g), rU7 = 1373...
 2.2.23(b): For the reaction 2 C6H5COOH(s) + 13 O2(g)12 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g), rU7 ...
 2.2.24(a): Calculate the standard enthalpies of formation of (a) KClO3(s) from...
 2.2.24(b): Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of NOCl(g) from the en...
 2.2.25(a): Use the information in Table 2.5 to predict the standard reaction e...
 2.2.25(b): Use the information in Table 2.5 to predict the standard reaction e...
 2.2.26(a): From the data in Table 2.5, calculate rH7 and rU7 at (a) 298 K, (b)...
 2.2.26(b): Calculate rH7 and rU7 at 298 K and rH7 at 348 K for the hydrogenati...
 2.2.27(a): Calculate rH7 for the reaction Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq)ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s) f...
 2.2.27(b): Calculate rH7 for the reaction NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq)AgCl(s) + NaNO3(...
 2.2.28(a): Set up a thermodynamic cycle for determining the enthalpy of hydrat...
 2.2.28(b): Set up a thermodynamic cycle for determining the enthalpy of hydrat...
 2.2.29(a): When a certain freon used in refrigeration was expanded adiabatical...
 2.2.29(b): A vapour at 22 atm and 5C was allowed to expand adiabatically to a ...
 2.2.30(a): For a van der Waals gas, T = a/V2 m. Calculate Um for the isotherma...
 2.2.30(b): Repeat Exercise 2.30(a) for argon, from an initial volume of 1.00 d...
 2.2.31(a): The volume of a certain liquid varies with temperature as V = V{0.7...
 2.2.31(b): The volume of a certain liquid varies with temperature as V = V{0.7...
 2.2.32(a): The isothermal compressibility of copper at 293 K is 7.35 107 atm1....
 2.2.32(b): The isothermal compressibility of lead at 293 K is 2.21 106 atm1. C...
 2.2.33(a): Given that = 0.25 K atm1 for nitrogen, calculate the value of its i...
 2.2.33(b): Given that = 1.11 K atm1 for carbon dioxide, calculate the value of...
 2.2.8: A sample of the sugar dribose (C5H10O5) of mass 0.727 g was placed...
 2.2.9: The standard enthalpy of formation of the metallocene bis(benzene)c...
 2.2.10: From the enthalpy of combustion data in Table 2.5 for the alkanes m...
 2.2.11: It is possible to investigate the thermochemical properties of hydr...
 2.2.12: When 1.3584 g of sodium acetate trihydrate was mixed into 100.0 cm3...
 2.2.13: Since their discovery in 1985, fullerenes have received the attenti...
 2.2.14: A thermodynamic study of DyCl3 (E.H.P. Cordfunke, A.S. Booji, and M...
 2.2.15: Silylene (SiH2) is a key intermediate in the thermal decomposition ...
 2.2.16: Silanone (SiH2O) and silanol (SiH3OH) are species believed to be im...
 2.2.17: The constantvolume heat capacity of a gas can be measured by obser...
 2.2.18: A sample consisting of 1.00 mol of a van der Waals gas is compresse...
 2.2.19: Take nitrogen to be a van der Waals gas with a = 1.352 dm6 atm mol2...
 2.2.20: Show that the following functions have exact differentials: (a) x2y...
 2.2.21: (a) What is the total differential of z = x2 + 2y2 2xy + 2x 4y 8? (...
 2.2.22: (a) Express (CV/V)T as a second derivative of U and find its relati...
 2.2.23: (a) Derive the relation CV = (U/V)T(V/T)U from the expression for t...
 2.2.24: Starting from the expression Cp CV = T(p/T)V(V/T)p, use the appropr...
 2.2.25: (a) By direct differentiation of H = U + pV, obtain a relation betw...
 2.2.26: (a) Write expressions for dV and dp given that V is a function of p...
 2.2.27: Calculate the work done during the isothermal reversible expansion ...
 2.2.28: Express the work of isothermal reversible expansion of a van der Wa...
 2.2.29: A gas obeying the equation of state p(V nb) = nRT is subjected to a...
 2.2.30: Use the fact that (U/V)T = a/V2m for a van der Waals gas to show th...
 2.2.31: Rearrange the van der Waals equation of state to give an expression...
 2.2.32: Calculate the isothermal compressibility and the expansion coeffici...
 2.2.33: Given that Cp = T(V/T)p V, derive an expression for in terms of the...
 2.2.34: The thermodynamic equation of state (U/V)T = T(p/T)V p was quoted i...
 2.2.35: Show that for a van der Waals gas, Cp,m CV,m = R = 1 and evaluate t...
 2.2.36: The speed of sound, cs, in a gas of molar mass Mis related to the r...
 2.2.37: A gas obeys the equation of state Vm = RT/p + aT2 and its constantp...
 2.2.38: It is possible to see with the aid of a powerful microscope that a ...
 2.2.39: There are no dietary recommendations for consumption of carbohydrat...
 2.2.40: An average human produces about 10 MJ of heat each day through meta...
 2.2.41: Glucose and fructose are simple sugars with the molecular formula C...
 2.2.42: In biological cells that have a plentiful supply of O2, glucose is ...
 2.2.43: You have at your disposal a sample of pure polymer P and a sample o...
 2.2.44: Alkyl radicals are important intermediates in the combustion and at...
 2.2.45: In 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) consi...
 2.2.46: Concerns over the harmful effects of chlorofluorocarbons on stratos...
 2.2.47: Another alternative refrigerant (see preceding problem) is 1,1,1,2...
Solutions for Chapter 2: The First Law
Full solutions for Physical Chemistry  8th Edition
ISBN: 9780716787594
Solutions for Chapter 2: The First Law
Get Full SolutionsThis textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physical Chemistry , edition: 8. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Physical Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780716787594. Since 113 problems in chapter 2: The First Law have been answered, more than 56803 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 2: The First Law includes 113 full stepbystep solutions.

angstrom
A common nonSI unit of length, denoted Å, that is used to measure atomic dimensions: 1Å = 1010 m. (Section 2.3)

antiferromagnetism
A form of magnetism in which unpaired electron spins on adjacent sites point in opposite directions and cancel each other’s effects. (Section 23.1)

bonding pair
In a Lewis structure a pair of electrons that is shared by two atoms. (Section 9.2)

carbonyl group
A CRO bond. carboxylic acid derivative (Sect. 21.6): A compound that is similar in structure to a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) but the OH group of the carboxylic acid has been replaced with a different group, Z, where Z is a heteroatom such as Cl, O, N, etc. Nitriles (R!C#N) are also considered to be carboxylic acid derivatives because they have the same oxidation state as carboxylic acids.

chair conformation
The lowest energy conformation for cyclohexane, in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5° and all hydrogen atoms are staggered.

chemical kinetics.
The area of chemistry concerned with the speeds, or rates, at which chemical reactions occur. (13.1)

curie
A measure of radioactivity: 1 curie = 3.7 * 1010 nuclear disintegrations per second. (Section 21.4)

diastereomers
Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another.

Dieckmann cyclization
An intramolecular Claisen condensation.

hydrogen abstraction
In radical reactions, a type of arrowpushing pattern in which a hydrogen atom is abstracted by a radical, generating a new radical.

levorotatory
A compound thatrotates planepolarized light in a counterclockwisedirection ().

mineral
A solid, inorganic substance occurring in nature, such as calcium carbonate, which occurs as calcite. (Section 23.1)

nuclear model
Model of the atom with a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and with electrons in the space outside the nucleus. (Section 2.2)

optically inactive
A compound that does not rotate planepolarized light.

peptide bond
The amide linkage by which two amino acids are coupled together to form peptides.

photoionization
The removal of an electron from an atom or molecule by absorption of light. (Section 18.2)

Primary (1°) amine
An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one carbon and two hydrogens

proton transfer
One of the four arrowpushing patterns for ionic reactions.

saturated
A compound that contains no p bonds.

thermodynamic control
A reaction for which the ratio of products is determined solely by the distribution of energy among the products.