 3.3.1: The evolution of life requires the organization of a very large num...
 3.3.2: You received an unsolicited proposal from a selfdeclared inventor ...
 3.3.3: The following expressions have been used to establish criteria for ...
 3.3.4: The following expressions have been used to establish criteria for ...
 3.3.5: Discuss the physical interpretation of any one Maxwell relation.
 3.3.6: Account for the dependence of T of a van der Waals gas in terms of ...
 3.3.7: Suggest a physical interpretation of the dependence of the Gibbs en...
 3.3.8: Suggest a physical interpretation of the dependence of the Gibbs en...
 3.3.1(a): Calculate the change in entropy when 25 kJ of energy is transferred...
 3.3.1(b): Calculate the change in entropy when 50 kJ of energy is transferred...
 3.3.2(a): Calculate the molar entropy of a constantvolume sample of neon at ...
 3.3.2(b): Calculate the molar entropy of a constantvolume sample of argon at...
 3.3.3(a): Calculate S (for the system) when the state of 3.00 mol of perfect ...
 3.3.3(b): Calculate S (for the system) when the state of 2.00 mol diatomic pe...
 3.3.4(a): A sample consisting of 3.00 mol of diatomic perfect gas molecules a...
 3.3.4(b): A sample consisting of 2.00 mol of diatomic perfect gas molecules a...
 3.3.5(a): Calculate H and Stot when two copper blocks, each of mass 10.0 kg, ...
 3.3.5(b): Calculate H and Stot when two iron blocks, each of mass 1.00 kg, on...
 3.3.6(a): Consider a system consisting of 2.0 mol CO2(g), initially at 25C an...
 3.3.6(b): Consider a system consisting of 1.5 mol CO2(g), initially at 15C an...
 3.3.7(a): The enthalpy of vaporization of chloroform (CHCl3) is 29.4 kJ mol1 ...
 3.3.7(b): The enthalpy of vaporization of methanol is 35.27 kJ mol1 at its no...
 3.3.8(a): Calculate the standard reaction entropy at 298 K of (a) 2 CH3CHO(g)...
 3.3.8(b): Calculate the standard reaction entropy at 298 K of (a) Zn(s) + Cu2...
 3.3.9(a): Combine the reaction entropies calculated in Exercise 3.8a with the...
 3.3.9(b): Combine the reaction entropies calculated in Exercise 3.8b with the...
 3.3.10(a): Use standard Gibbs energies of formation to calculate the standard ...
 3.3.10(b): Use standard Gibbs energies of formation to calculate the standard ...
 3.3.11(a): Calculate the standard Gibbs energy of the reaction 4 HCl(g) + O2(g...
 3.3.11(b): Calculate the standard Gibbs energy of the reaction CO(g) + CH3OH(l...
 3.3.12(a): The standard enthalpy of combustion of solid phenol (C6H5OH) is 305...
 3.3.12(b): The standard enthalpy of combustion of solid urea (CO(NH2)2) is 632...
 3.3.13(a): Calculate the change in the entropies of the system and the surroun...
 3.3.13(b): Calculate the change in the entropies of the system and the surroun...
 3.3.14(a): Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work per mole that may be obtai...
 3.3.14(b): Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work per mole that may be obtai...
 3.3.15(a): (a) Calculate the Carnot efficiency of a primitive steam engine ope...
 3.3.15(b): A certain heat engine operates between 1000 K and 500 K. (a) What i...
 3.3.16(a): Suppose that 3.0 mmol N2(g) occupies 36 cm3 at 300 K and expands to...
 3.3.16(b): Suppose that 2.5 mmol Ar(g) occupies 72 dm3 at 298 K and expands to...
 3.3.17(a): The change in the Gibbs energy of a certain constantpressure proce...
 3.3.17(b): The change in the Gibbs energy of a certain constantpressure proce...
 3.3.18(a): Calculate the change in Gibbs energy of 35 g of ethanol (mass densi...
 3.3.18(b): Calculate the change in Gibbs energy of 25 g of methanol (mass dens...
 3.3.19(a): Calculate the change in chemical potential of a perfect gas when it...
 3.3.19(b): Calculate the change in chemical potential of a perfect gas when it...
 3.3.20(a): The fugacity coefficient of a certain gas at 200 K and 50 bar is 0....
 3.3.20(b): The fugacity coefficient of a certain gas at 290 K and 2.1 MPa is 0...
 3.3.21(a): Estimate the change in the Gibbs energy of 1.0 dm3 of benzene when ...
 3.3.21(b): Estimate the change in the Gibbs energy of 1.0 dm3 of water when th...
 3.3.22(a): Calculate the change in the molar Gibbs energy of hydrogen gas when...
 3.3.22(b): Calculate the change in the molar Gibbs energy of oxygen when its p...
 3.3.9: Find an expression for the change in entropy when two blocks of the...
 3.3.10: A gaseous sample consisting of 1.00 mol molecules is described by t...
 3.3.11: The molar heat capacity of lead varies with temperature as follows:...
 3.3.12: From standard enthalpies of formation, standard entropies, and stan...
 3.3.13: The heat capacity of anhydrous potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) varie...
 3.3.14: The compound 1,3,5trichloro2,4,6trifluorobenzene is an intermedi...
 3.3.15: Given that S7m = 29.79 J K1 mol1 for bismuth at 100 K and the follo...
 3.3.16: Calculate rG7(375 K) for the reaction 2 CO(g) + O2(g)2 CO2(g) from ...
 3.3.17: Estimate the standard reaction Gibbs energy of N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH...
 3.3.18: At 200 K, the compression factor of oxygen varies with pressure as ...
 3.3.19: Represent the Carnot cycle on a temperatureentropy diagram and show...
 3.3.20: Prove that two reversible adiabatic paths can never cross. Assume t...
 3.3.21: Prove that the perfect gas temperature scale and the thermodynamic ...
 3.3.22: The molar Gibbs energy of a certain gas is given by Gm = RT ln p + ...
 3.3.23: Evaluate (S/V)T for (a) a van der Waals gas, (b) a Dieterici gas (T...
 3.3.24: Show that, for a perfect gas, (U/S)V = T and (U/V)S = p.
 3.3.25: Two of the four Maxwell relations were derived in the text, but two...
 3.3.26: Use the Maxwell relations to express the derivatives (a) (S/V)T and...
 3.3.27: Use the Maxwell relations to show that the entropy of a perfect gas...
 3.3.28: Derive the thermodynamic equation of state T = V T p Derive an expr...
 3.3.29: Show that if B(T) is the second virial coefficient of a gas, and B ...
 3.3.30: The Joule coefficient, J, is defined as J = (T/V)U. Show that JCV =...
 3.3.31: Evaluate T for a Dieterici gas (Table 1.7). Justify physically the ...
 3.3.32: The adiabatic compressibility, S, is defined like T (eqn 2.44) but ...
 3.3.33: Suppose that S is regarded as a function of p and T. Show that TdS ...
 3.3.34: Suppose that (a) the attractive interactions between gas particles ...
 3.3.35: Find an expression for the fugacity coefficient of a gas that obeys...
 3.3.36: The protein lysozyme unfolds at a transition temperature of 75.5C a...
 3.3.37: At 298 K the standard enthalpy of combustion of sucrose is 5797 kJ ...
 3.3.38: In biological cells, the energy released by the oxidation of foods ...
 3.3.39: In 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) consi...
 3.3.40: Nitric acid hydrates have received much attention as possible catal...
 3.3.41: J. Gao and J. H. Weiner in their study of the origin of stress on t...
 3.3.42: Suppose that an internal combustion engine runs on octane, for whic...
 3.3.43: The cycle involved in the operation of an internal combustion engin...
 3.3.44: To calculate the work required to lower the temperature of an objec...
 3.3.45: The expressions that apply to the treatment of refrigerators also d...
Solutions for Chapter 3: The Second Law
Full solutions for Physical Chemistry  8th Edition
ISBN: 9780716787594
Solutions for Chapter 3: The Second Law
Get Full SolutionsChapter 3: The Second Law includes 89 full stepbystep solutions. Since 89 problems in chapter 3: The Second Law have been answered, more than 21963 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Physical Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780716787594. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physical Chemistry , edition: 8. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

addition polymerization
Polymerization that occurs through coupling of monomers with one another, with no other products formed in the reaction. (Section 12.8)

adsorption
The binding of molecules to a surface. (Section 14.7)

alcohol
A compound that possesses a hydroxyl group (OH).

alkynide ion
The conjugate base of a terminal alkyne.

amalgam.
An alloy of mercury with another metal or metals. (21.2)

blocking group
A group that can be readily installed and uninstalled. Used for regiochemical control during synthesis.

carbonyl group
A CRO bond. carboxylic acid derivative (Sect. 21.6): A compound that is similar in structure to a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) but the OH group of the carboxylic acid has been replaced with a different group, Z, where Z is a heteroatom such as Cl, O, N, etc. Nitriles (R!C#N) are also considered to be carboxylic acid derivatives because they have the same oxidation state as carboxylic acids.

disrotatory
In electrocyclicreactions, a type of rotation in which the orbitalsbeing used to form the new s bond must rotate in opposite directions (one rotates clockwise while the other rotates counterclockwise).

divalent
An element that forms two bonds, such as oxygen.

entropy
A thermodynamic function associated with the number of different equivalent energy states or spatial arrangements in which a system may be found. It is a thermodynamic state function, which means that once we specify the conditions for a systemâ€”that is, the temperature, pressure, and so onâ€”the entropy is defined. (Section 19.2)

matter waves
The term used to describe the wave characteristics of a moving particle. (Section 6.4)

Newman projection
A drawing style that is designed to show the conformation of a molecule.

nonelectrolyte
A substance that does not ionize in water and consequently gives a nonconducting solution. (Section 4.1)

optically inactive
A compound that does not rotate planepolarized light.

oxyanion
A polyatomic anion that contains one or more oxygen atoms. (Section 2.8)

photoionization
The removal of an electron from an atom or molecule by absorption of light. (Section 18.2)

Polarizability
A measure of the ease of distortion of the distribution of electron density about an atom or group in response to interaction with other molecules or ions. Fluorine which has a high electronegativity and holds its electrons tightly, has a very low polarizability. Iodine, which has a lower electronegativity and holds its electrons less tightly, has a very high polarizability.

Polysaccharide
A carbohydrate containing a large number of monosaccharide units, each joined to the next by one or more glycosidic bonds.

racemic mixture
A mixture of equal amounts of the dextrorotatory and levorotatory forms of a chiral molecule. A racemic mixture will not rotate the plane of polarized light. (Section 23.4)

Resonance
A theory that many molecules and ions are best described as a hybrid of several Lewis structures