 3.3.1: The evolution of life requires the organization of a very large num...
 3.3.2: You received an unsolicited proposal from a selfdeclared inventor ...
 3.3.3: The following expressions have been used to establish criteria for ...
 3.3.4: The following expressions have been used to establish criteria for ...
 3.3.5: Discuss the physical interpretation of any one Maxwell relation.
 3.3.6: Account for the dependence of T of a van der Waals gas in terms of ...
 3.3.7: Suggest a physical interpretation of the dependence of the Gibbs en...
 3.3.8: Suggest a physical interpretation of the dependence of the Gibbs en...
 3.3.1(a): Calculate the change in entropy when 25 kJ of energy is transferred...
 3.3.1(b): Calculate the change in entropy when 50 kJ of energy is transferred...
 3.3.2(a): Calculate the molar entropy of a constantvolume sample of neon at ...
 3.3.2(b): Calculate the molar entropy of a constantvolume sample of argon at...
 3.3.3(a): Calculate S (for the system) when the state of 3.00 mol of perfect ...
 3.3.3(b): Calculate S (for the system) when the state of 2.00 mol diatomic pe...
 3.3.4(a): A sample consisting of 3.00 mol of diatomic perfect gas molecules a...
 3.3.4(b): A sample consisting of 2.00 mol of diatomic perfect gas molecules a...
 3.3.5(a): Calculate H and Stot when two copper blocks, each of mass 10.0 kg, ...
 3.3.5(b): Calculate H and Stot when two iron blocks, each of mass 1.00 kg, on...
 3.3.6(a): Consider a system consisting of 2.0 mol CO2(g), initially at 25C an...
 3.3.6(b): Consider a system consisting of 1.5 mol CO2(g), initially at 15C an...
 3.3.7(a): The enthalpy of vaporization of chloroform (CHCl3) is 29.4 kJ mol1 ...
 3.3.7(b): The enthalpy of vaporization of methanol is 35.27 kJ mol1 at its no...
 3.3.8(a): Calculate the standard reaction entropy at 298 K of (a) 2 CH3CHO(g)...
 3.3.8(b): Calculate the standard reaction entropy at 298 K of (a) Zn(s) + Cu2...
 3.3.9(a): Combine the reaction entropies calculated in Exercise 3.8a with the...
 3.3.9(b): Combine the reaction entropies calculated in Exercise 3.8b with the...
 3.3.10(a): Use standard Gibbs energies of formation to calculate the standard ...
 3.3.10(b): Use standard Gibbs energies of formation to calculate the standard ...
 3.3.11(a): Calculate the standard Gibbs energy of the reaction 4 HCl(g) + O2(g...
 3.3.11(b): Calculate the standard Gibbs energy of the reaction CO(g) + CH3OH(l...
 3.3.12(a): The standard enthalpy of combustion of solid phenol (C6H5OH) is 305...
 3.3.12(b): The standard enthalpy of combustion of solid urea (CO(NH2)2) is 632...
 3.3.13(a): Calculate the change in the entropies of the system and the surroun...
 3.3.13(b): Calculate the change in the entropies of the system and the surroun...
 3.3.14(a): Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work per mole that may be obtai...
 3.3.14(b): Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work per mole that may be obtai...
 3.3.15(a): (a) Calculate the Carnot efficiency of a primitive steam engine ope...
 3.3.15(b): A certain heat engine operates between 1000 K and 500 K. (a) What i...
 3.3.16(a): Suppose that 3.0 mmol N2(g) occupies 36 cm3 at 300 K and expands to...
 3.3.16(b): Suppose that 2.5 mmol Ar(g) occupies 72 dm3 at 298 K and expands to...
 3.3.17(a): The change in the Gibbs energy of a certain constantpressure proce...
 3.3.17(b): The change in the Gibbs energy of a certain constantpressure proce...
 3.3.18(a): Calculate the change in Gibbs energy of 35 g of ethanol (mass densi...
 3.3.18(b): Calculate the change in Gibbs energy of 25 g of methanol (mass dens...
 3.3.19(a): Calculate the change in chemical potential of a perfect gas when it...
 3.3.19(b): Calculate the change in chemical potential of a perfect gas when it...
 3.3.20(a): The fugacity coefficient of a certain gas at 200 K and 50 bar is 0....
 3.3.20(b): The fugacity coefficient of a certain gas at 290 K and 2.1 MPa is 0...
 3.3.21(a): Estimate the change in the Gibbs energy of 1.0 dm3 of benzene when ...
 3.3.21(b): Estimate the change in the Gibbs energy of 1.0 dm3 of water when th...
 3.3.22(a): Calculate the change in the molar Gibbs energy of hydrogen gas when...
 3.3.22(b): Calculate the change in the molar Gibbs energy of oxygen when its p...
 3.3.9: Find an expression for the change in entropy when two blocks of the...
 3.3.10: A gaseous sample consisting of 1.00 mol molecules is described by t...
 3.3.11: The molar heat capacity of lead varies with temperature as follows:...
 3.3.12: From standard enthalpies of formation, standard entropies, and stan...
 3.3.13: The heat capacity of anhydrous potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) varie...
 3.3.14: The compound 1,3,5trichloro2,4,6trifluorobenzene is an intermedi...
 3.3.15: Given that S7m = 29.79 J K1 mol1 for bismuth at 100 K and the follo...
 3.3.16: Calculate rG7(375 K) for the reaction 2 CO(g) + O2(g)2 CO2(g) from ...
 3.3.17: Estimate the standard reaction Gibbs energy of N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH...
 3.3.18: At 200 K, the compression factor of oxygen varies with pressure as ...
 3.3.19: Represent the Carnot cycle on a temperatureentropy diagram and show...
 3.3.20: Prove that two reversible adiabatic paths can never cross. Assume t...
 3.3.21: Prove that the perfect gas temperature scale and the thermodynamic ...
 3.3.22: The molar Gibbs energy of a certain gas is given by Gm = RT ln p + ...
 3.3.23: Evaluate (S/V)T for (a) a van der Waals gas, (b) a Dieterici gas (T...
 3.3.24: Show that, for a perfect gas, (U/S)V = T and (U/V)S = p.
 3.3.25: Two of the four Maxwell relations were derived in the text, but two...
 3.3.26: Use the Maxwell relations to express the derivatives (a) (S/V)T and...
 3.3.27: Use the Maxwell relations to show that the entropy of a perfect gas...
 3.3.28: Derive the thermodynamic equation of state T = V T p Derive an expr...
 3.3.29: Show that if B(T) is the second virial coefficient of a gas, and B ...
 3.3.30: The Joule coefficient, J, is defined as J = (T/V)U. Show that JCV =...
 3.3.31: Evaluate T for a Dieterici gas (Table 1.7). Justify physically the ...
 3.3.32: The adiabatic compressibility, S, is defined like T (eqn 2.44) but ...
 3.3.33: Suppose that S is regarded as a function of p and T. Show that TdS ...
 3.3.34: Suppose that (a) the attractive interactions between gas particles ...
 3.3.35: Find an expression for the fugacity coefficient of a gas that obeys...
 3.3.36: The protein lysozyme unfolds at a transition temperature of 75.5C a...
 3.3.37: At 298 K the standard enthalpy of combustion of sucrose is 5797 kJ ...
 3.3.38: In biological cells, the energy released by the oxidation of foods ...
 3.3.39: In 1995, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) consi...
 3.3.40: Nitric acid hydrates have received much attention as possible catal...
 3.3.41: J. Gao and J. H. Weiner in their study of the origin of stress on t...
 3.3.42: Suppose that an internal combustion engine runs on octane, for whic...
 3.3.43: The cycle involved in the operation of an internal combustion engin...
 3.3.44: To calculate the work required to lower the temperature of an objec...
 3.3.45: The expressions that apply to the treatment of refrigerators also d...
Solutions for Chapter 3: The Second Law
Full solutions for Physical Chemistry  8th Edition
ISBN: 9780716787594
Solutions for Chapter 3: The Second Law
Get Full SolutionsChapter 3: The Second Law includes 89 full stepbystep solutions. Since 89 problems in chapter 3: The Second Law have been answered, more than 10099 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Physical Chemistry was written by Patricia and is associated to the ISBN: 9780716787594. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physical Chemistry , edition: 8. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

aliphatic hydrocarbons.
Hydrocarbons that do not contain the benzene group or the benzene ring. (24.1)

amines.
Organic bases that have the functional group —NR2, where R may be H, an alkyl group, or an aromatic group. (24.4)

Amino group
A compound containing an sp3 hybridized nitrogen atom bonded to one, two, or three carbon atoms

Anion
An atom or group of atoms bearing a negative charge.

battery.
A galvanic cell, or a series of combined galvanic cells, that can be used as a source of direct electric current at a constant voltage. (18.6)

cathodic protection
A means of protecting a metal against corrosion by making it the cathode in a voltaic cell. This can be achieved by attaching a more easily oxidized metal, which serves as an anode, to the metal to be protected. (Section 20.8)

conduction band
A band of molecular orbitals lying higher in energy than the occupied valence band and distinctly separated from it. (Section 12.7)

critical temperature (Tc).
The temperature above which a gas will not liquefy. (11.8)

E,Z system
A system to specify the confi guration of groups about a carboncarbon double bond

Haloform
A compound of the type CHX3 where X is a halogen.

hydride ion
An ion formed by the addition of an electron to a hydrogen atom: H. (Section 7.7)

hydroborationoxidation
A twostep process that achieves an antiMarkovnikov addition of a proton and a hydroxyl group (OH) across an alkene.

Ka
A measure of the strength of an acid: Ka = Keq 3H2O4 = 3H3O+ 4 3A 4 3HA4

Lactam
A cyclic amide.

maingroup elements
Elements in the s and p blocks of the periodic table. (Section 6.9)

mass number
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a particular atom. (Section 2.3)

polyvinyl chloride, (PVC)
A polymer formed from the polymerization of vinyl chloride (H2CRCHCl).

Primary (1°) amine
An amine in which nitrogen is bonded to one carbon and two hydrogens

reaction mechanism
A series of intermediates and curved arrows that show howthe reaction occurs in terms of the motion of electrons.

reaction order
The power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised in a rate law. (Section 14.3)
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