 21.21.1: Use the kinetic theory to justify the following observations: (a) t...
 21.21.2: Provide a molecular interpretation for each of the following proces...
 21.21.3: Provide a molecular interpretation for the observation that the vis...
 21.21.4: Discuss the mechanism of proton conduction in liquid water.
 21.21.5: Limit the generality of the following expressions: (a) J = D(dc/dx)...
 21.21.6: Provide a molecular interpretation for the observation that mediate...
 21.21.7: Discuss how nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, inelastic neut...
 21.21.1(a): Determine the ratios of (a) the mean speeds, (b) the mean kinetic e...
 21.21.1(b): Determine the ratios of (a) the mean speeds, (b) the mean kinetic e...
 21.21.2(a): A 1.0 dm3 glass bulb contains 1.0 1023 H2 molecules. If the pressur...
 21.21.2(b): The best laboratory vacuum pump can generate a vacuum of about 1 nT...
 21.21.3(a): At what pressure does the mean free path of argon at 25C become com...
 21.21.3(b): At what pressure does the mean free path of argon at 25C become com...
 21.21.4(a): At an altitude of 20 km the temperature is 217 K and the pressure 0...
 21.21.4(b): At an altitude of 15 km the temperature is 217 K and the pressure 1...
 21.21.5(a): How many collisions does a single Ar atom make in 1.0 s when the te...
 21.21.5(b): How many collisions per second does an N2 molecule make at an altit...
 21.21.6(a): Calculate the mean free path of molecules in air using = 0.43 nm2 a...
 21.21.6(b): Calculate the mean free path of carbon dioxide molecules using = 0....
 21.21.7(a): Use the Maxwell distribution of speeds to estimate the fraction of ...
 21.21.7(b): Use the Maxwell distribution of speeds to estimate the fraction of ...
 21.21.8(a): A solid surface with dimensions 2.5 mm 3.0 mm is exposed to argon g...
 21.21.8(b): A solid surface with dimensions 3.5 mm 4.0 cm is exposed to helium ...
 21.21.9(a): An effusion cell has a circular hole of diameter 2.50 mm. If the mo...
 21.21.9(b): An effusion cell has a circular hole of diameter 3.00 mm. If the mo...
 21.21.10(a): A manometer was connected to a bulb containing carbon dioxide under...
 21.21.10(b): A manometer was connected to a bulb containing nitrogen under sligh...
 21.21.11(a): A space vehicle of internal volume 3.0 m3 is struck by a meteor and...
 21.21.11(b): A container of internal volume 22.0 m3 was punctured, and a hole of...
 21.21.12(a): Calculate the flux of energy arising from a temperature gradient of...
 21.21.12(b): Calculate the flux of energy arising from a temperature gradient of...
 21.21.13(a): Use the experimental value of the thermal conductivity of neon (Tab...
 21.21.13(b): Use the experimental value of the thermal conductivity of nitrogen ...
 21.21.14(a): In a doubleglazed window, the panes of glass are separated by 5.0 ...
 21.21.14(b): Two sheets of copper of area 1.50 m2 are separated by 10.0 cm. What...
 21.21.15(a): Use the experimental value of the coefficient of viscosity for neon...
 21.21.15(b): Use the experimental value of the coefficient of viscosity for nitr...
 21.21.16(a): Calculate the inlet pressure required to maintain a flow rate of 9....
 21.21.16(b): Calculate the inlet pressure required to maintain a flow rate of 8....
 21.21.17(a): Calculate the viscosity of air at (a) 273 K, (b) 298 K, (c) 1000 K....
 21.21.17(b): Calculate the viscosity of benzene vapour at (a) 273 K, (b) 298 K, ...
 21.21.18(a): Calculate the thermal conductivities of (a) argon, (b) helium at 30...
 21.21.18(b): Calculate the thermal conductivities of (a) neon, (b) nitrogen at 3...
 21.21.19(a): The viscosity of carbon dioxide was measured by comparing its rate ...
 21.21.19(b): The viscosity of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) was measured by compari...
 21.21.20(a): Calculate the thermal conductivity of argon (CV,m = 12.5 J K1 mol1,...
 21.21.20(b): Calculate the thermal conductivity of nitrogen (CV,m = 20.8 J K1 mo...
 21.21.21(a): Calculate the diffusion constant of argon at 25C and (a) 1.00 Pa, (...
 21.21.21(b): Calculate the diffusion constant of nitrogen at 25C and (a) 10.0 Pa...
 21.21.22(a): The mobility of a chloride ion in aqueous solution at 25C is 7.91 1...
 21.21.22(b): The mobility of an acetate ion in aqueous solution at 25C is 4.24 1...
 21.21.23(a): The mobility of a Rb+ ion in aqueous solution is 7.92 108 m2 s1 V1 ...
 21.21.23(b): The mobility of a Li+ ion in aqueous solution is 4.01 108 m2 s1 V1 ...
 21.21.24(a): What fraction of the total current is carried by Li+ when current f...
 21.21.24(b): What fraction of the total current is carried by Cl when current fl...
 21.21.25(a): The limiting molar conductivities of KCl, KNO3, and AgNO3 are 14.99...
 21.21.25(b): The limiting molar conductivities of NaI, NaCH3CO2, and Mg(CH3CO2)2...
 21.21.26(a): At 25C the molar ionic conductivities of Li+, Na+, and K+ are 3.87 ...
 21.21.26(b): At 25C the molar ionic conductivities of F, Cl, and Br are 5.54 mS ...
 21.21.27(a): The mobility of a NO3 ion in aqueous solution at 25C is 7.40 108 m2...
 21.21.27(b): The mobility of a CH3CO2 ion in aqueous solution at 25C is 4.24 108...
 21.21.28(a): The diffusion coefficient of CCl4 in heptane at 25C is 3.17 109 m2 ...
 21.21.28(b): The diffusion coefficient of I2 in hexane at 25C is 4.05 109 m2 s1....
 21.21.29(a): Estimate the effective radius of a sucrose molecule in water 25C gi...
 21.21.29(b): Estimate the effective radius of a glycine molecule in water at 25C...
 21.21.30(a): The diffusion coefficient for molecular iodine in benzene is 2.13 1...
 21.21.30(b): The diffusion coefficient for CCl4 in heptane is 3.17 109 m2 s1. Ho...
 21.21.31(a): What are the root mean square distances travelled by an iodine mole...
 21.21.31(b): About how long, on average, does it take for the molecules in Exerc...
 21.21.8: Conductivities are often measured by comparing the resistance of a ...
 21.21.9: The resistances of a series of aqueous NaCl solutions, formed by su...
 21.21.10: After correction for the water conductivity, the conductivity of a ...
 21.21.11: What are the drift speeds of Li+, Na+, and K+ in water when a poten...
 21.21.12: The mobilities of H+ and Cl at 25C in water are 3.623 107 m2 s1 V1 ...
 21.21.13: In a moving boundary experiment on KCl the apparatus consisted of a...
 21.21.14: The proton possesses abnormal mobility in water, but does it behave...
 21.21.15: A dilute solution of potassium permanganate in water at 25C was pre...
 21.21.16: Estimate the diffusion coefficients and the effective hydrodynamic ...
 21.21.17: Nuclear magnetic resonance can be used to determine the mobility of...
 21.21.18: A concentrated sucrose solution is poured into a cylinder of diamet...
 21.21.19: In a series of observations on the displacement of rubber latex sph...
 21.21.20: A.K. Srivastava, R.A. Samant, and S.D. Patankar (J. Chem. Eng. Data...
 21.21.21: A. Fenghour, W.A. Wakeham, V. Vesovic, J.T.R. Watson, J. Millat, an...
 21.21.22: G. Bakale, K. Lacmann, and W.F. Schmidt ( J. Phys. Chem. 100, 12477...
 21.21.23: Start from the MaxwellBoltzmann distribution and derive an expressi...
 21.21.24: Consider molecules that are confined to move in a plane (a twodimen...
 21.21.25: A specially constructed velocityselector accepts a beam of molecul...
 21.21.26: What is the proportion of gas molecules having (a) more than, (b) l...
 21.21.27: Calculate the fractions of molecules in a gas that have a speed in ...
 21.21.28: Derive an expression that shows how the pressure of a gas inside an...
 21.21.29: Show how the ratio of two transport numbers t and t for two cations...
 21.21.30: Confirm that eqn 21.72 is a solution of the diffusion equation with...
 21.21.31: The diffusion equation is valid when many elementary steps are take...
 21.21.32: Use mathematical software to calculate P in a onedimensional rando...
 21.21.33: Supply the intermediate mathematical steps in Justification 21.7.
 21.21.34: A dilute solution of a weak (1,1)electrolyte contains both neutral...
 21.21.35: Calculate the escape velocity (the minimum initial velocity that wi...
 21.21.36: Interstellar space is a medium quite different from the gaseous env...
 21.21.37: The principal components of the atmosphere of the Earth are diatomi...
 21.21.38: In the standard model of stellar structure (I. Nicholson, The sun. ...
 21.21.39: Enrico Fermi, the great Italian scientist, was a master at making g...
 21.21.40: The diffusion coefficient of a particular kind of tRNA molecule is...
 21.21.41: In this problem, we examine a model for the transport of oxygen fro...
Solutions for Chapter 21: Molecules in motion
Full solutions for Physical Chemistry  8th Edition
ISBN: 9780716787594
Solutions for Chapter 21: Molecules in motion
Get Full SolutionsThis textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Physical Chemistry , edition: 8. Since 103 problems in chapter 21: Molecules in motion have been answered, more than 57043 students have viewed full stepbystep solutions from this chapter. Chapter 21: Molecules in motion includes 103 full stepbystep solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Physical Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780716787594.

acidic anhydride (acidic oxide)
An oxide that forms an acid when added to water; soluble nonmetal oxides are acidic anhydrides. (Section 22.5)

alditol
The product obtained when the aldehyde group of an aldose is reduced.

anode.
The electrode at which oxidation occurs. (18.2)

Boyle’s law.
The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the gas pressure. (5.3)

chair conformation
The lowest energy conformation for cyclohexane, in which all bond angles are fairly close to 109.5° and all hydrogen atoms are staggered.

chromophore
In UVVis spectroscopy, the region of the molecule responsible for the absorption (the conjugated p system).

crystalfield theory
A theory that accounts for the colors and the magnetic and other properties of transitionmetal complexes in terms of the splitting of the energies of metal ion d orbitals by the electrostatic interaction with the ligands. (Section 23.6)

delocalization
The spreading of a charge or lone pair as described by resonance theory.

dilution.
A procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated solution. (4.5)

firstorder reaction
A reaction in which the reaction rate is proportional to the concentration of a single reactant, raised to the first power. (Section 14.4)

Glass transition temperature (TG)
The temperature at which a polymer undergoes the transition from a hard glass to a rubbery state

Haloalkane (alkyl halide)
A compound containing a halogen atom covalently bonded to an sp3 hybridized carbon atom. Given the symbol R!X.

limiting reactant (limiting reagent)
The reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric quantity in a mixture of reactants; the amount of product that can form is limited by the complete consumption of the limiting reactant. (Section 3.7)

molecular compound
A compound that consists of molecules. (Section 2.6)

Nucleophilicity
A kinetic property measured by the rate at which a nucleophile causes nucleophilic substitution on a reference compound under a standardized set of experimental conditions.

Phenyl group
A group derived by removing an H from benzene; abbreviated C6H5! or Ph!.

Photons
An alternative way to describe electromagnetic radiation as a stream of particles

polysaccharides
Polymers made up of repeating monosaccharide units linked together by glycoside bonds.

Raoult’s law
A law stating that the partial pressure of a solvent over a solution, Psolution, is given by the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, P° solvent, times the mole fraction of a solvent in the solution, Xsolvent: Psolution = XsolventP° solvent. (Section 13.5)

Steric hindrance
The ability of groups, because of their size, to hinder access to a reaction site within a molecule.