- Chapter 1: Introduction: Matter and Measurement
- Chapter 10: GASES
- Chapter 11: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS
- Chapter 12: MODERN MATERIALS
- Chapter 13: PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS
- Chapter 14: CHEMICAL KINETICS
- Chapter 15: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
- Chapter 16: ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA
- Chapter 17: ADDITIONAL ASPECTS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA
- Chapter 18: CHEMISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
- Chapter 19: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS
- Chapter 2: ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS
- Chapter 20: ELECTROCHEMISTRY
- Chapter 21: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
- Chapter 22: CHEMISTRY OF THE NONMETALS
- Chapter 23: METALS AND METALLURGY
- Chapter 24: CHEMISTRY OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS
- Chapter 25: THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
- Chapter 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS
- Chapter 4: AQUEOUS REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY
- Chapter 5: THERMOCHEMISTRY
- Chapter 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
- Chapter 7: PERIODIC PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS
- Chapter 8: BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMICAL BONDING
- Chapter 9: MOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND BONDING THEORIES
Chemistry: The Central Science 11th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Chemistry: The Central Science | 11th Edition
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms react with a double bond, forming a compound with the two new groups bonded to the carbons of the original double bond.
A dicarboxylic acid that is produced when an aldose or ketose is treated with a strong oxidizing agent, such as HNO3.
A substituent lacking p bonds and comprised of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
A reaction that achieves the installation of an alkyl group. For example, an SN2 reaction in which an alkyl group is connected to an attacking nucleophile.
A unit of pressure equal to 105 Pa. (Section 10.2)
For mechanisms, a step that involves two chemical entities.
crossed Claisen condensation
A Claisen condensation reaction that occurs between different partners.
Dalton’s law of partial pressures
A law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone. (Section 10.6)
Elimination of water.
A catalyst that does not dissolve in the reaction medium.
An !OH group
Electrically charged atom or group of atoms (polyatomic ion); ions can be positively or negatively charged, depending on whether electrons are lost (positive) or gained (negative) by the atoms. (Section 2.7)
A diagram that shows the energies of molecular orbitals relative to the atomic orbitals from which they are derived; also called an energy-level diagram. (Section 9.7)
During the polymerization process, compounds constructed from just a few monomers.
An instrument for measuring the ability of a compound to rotate the plane of plane-polarized light.
reaction quotient (Q)
The value that is obtained when concentrations of reactants and products are inserted into the equilibrium expression. If the concentrations are equilibrium concentrations, Q = K; otherwise, Q ? K. (Section 15.6)
Resonance in NMR spectroscopy
The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a precessing nucleus and the resulting “fl ip” of its nuclear spin from the lower energy state to the higher energy state.
An ionic compound formed by replacing one or more hydrogens of an acid by other cations. (Section 4.3)
The starting alkyl halide in a substitution or elimination reaction.
Vibrational infrared region
A common type of spin-spin coupling involving the H atoms on two C atoms that are bonded to each other.