- Chapter 1: The Chemical World
- Chapter 1: The Chemical World
- Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding
- Chapter 11: Gases
- Chapter 12: Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
- Chapter 13: Solutions
- Chapter 14: Acids and Bases
- Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium
- Chapter 16: Oxidation and Reduction
- Chapter 17: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
- Chapter 18: Organic Chemistry
- Chapter 19: Biochemistry
- Chapter 2: Measurement and Problem Solving
- Chapter 3: Matter and Energy
- Chapter 4: Atoms and Elements
- Chapter 5: Molecules and Compounds
- Chapter 6: Chemical Composition
- Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions
- Chapter 8: Quantities in Chemical Reactions
- Chapter 9: Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
Introductory Chemistry 4th Edition - Solutions by Chapter
Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 4th Edition
acidic anhydride (acidic oxide)
An oxide that forms an acid when added to water; soluble nonmetal oxides are acidic anhydrides. (Section 22.5)
activation energy (Ea).
The minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. (13.4)
A solvent that cannot serve as a hydrogen-bond donor; nowhere in the molecule is there a hydrogen bonded to an atom of high electronegativity. Common aprotic solvents are dichloromethane, diethyl ether, and dimethyl sulfoxide
A polymer with completely random confi gurations at the chiral centers along its chain, as, for example, atactic polypropylene
atomic number (Z).
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. (2.3)
The peak caused by the most abundant ion in a mass spectrum; the most intense peak. It is assigned an arbitrary intensity of 100
The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the gas pressure. (5.3)
An intermediate containing a positively charged carbon atom.
The production of chlorine gas by the electrolysis of aqueous NaCl solution. (22.6)
A reaction in which two smaller molecules combine to form a larger molecule. Water is invariably one of the products of such a reaction. (24.4)
A compound containing a metal ion bonded to a group of surrounding molecules or ions that act as ligands. (Section 23.2)
The electrons that are not in the outermost shell of an atom. (Section 6.8)
crossed aldol reaction
An aldol reaction that occurs between different partners.
The process in which molecules, ions, or atoms come together to form a crystalline solid. (Section 13.2)
An equation for either an oxidation or a reduction that explicitly shows the electrons involved, for example, Zn2 + 1aq2 + 2 e- ¡ Zn1s2. (Section 20.2)
Compounds whose molecules have the same overall composition but different structures. (Sections 2.9 and 23.4)
A biomolecule isolated from plant or animal sources by extraction with nonpolar organic solvents, such as diethyl ether and hexane.
An allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom; the term orbital is also used to describe the spatial distribution of the electron. An orbital is defined by the values of three quantum numbers: n, l, and ml (Section 6.5)
A region of space around a nucleus that can be occupied by electrons, corresponding to a principal quantum number
Rules for predicting the wavelength of maximum absorption for a compound with extended conjugation.