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Solutions for Chapter 1: The Chemical World

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 4th Edition

ISBN: 9780321687937

Solutions for Chapter 1: The Chemical World

Chapter 1: The Chemical World includes 20 full step-by-step solutions. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 4. Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321687937. Since 20 problems in chapter 1: The Chemical World have been answered, more than 95479 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • activate

    For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.

  • amino acid

    A carboxylic acid that contains an amino 1¬NH22 group attached to the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxylic acid 1¬COOH2 functional group. (Section 24.7)

  • biochemistry

    The study of the chemistry of living systems. (Chapter 24: Introduction)

  • conjugate base

    In an acid-base reaction, the product that results when an acid is deprotonated.

  • diastereotopic

    Nonequivalent protons for which the replacement test produces diastereomers.

  • Double-headed arrow

    A symbol used to show that structures on either side of it are resonance-contributing structures

  • endergonic

    Any process with a positive DG.

  • first law of thermodynamics

    A statement that energy is conserved in any process. One way to express the law is that the change in internal energy, ?E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)

  • N-nitrosamine

    A compound with the structure R2N!NRO.

  • nonpolar covalent bond

    A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally. (Section 8.4) normal boiling point The boiling point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.5)

  • nuclear model

    Model of the atom with a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and with electrons in the space outside the nucleus. (Section 2.2)

  • Orbital

    A region of space that can hold two electrons

  • Prochiral hydrogens

    Refers to two hydrogens bonded to a carbon atom. When a different atom replaces one or the other, the carbon becomes a chiral center. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are prochiral. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol

  • radioisotope

    An isotope that is radioactive; that is, it is undergoing nuclear changes with emission of radiation. (Section 21.1)

  • solubility

    The amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature to form a saturated solution. (Sections 4.2 and 13.2)

  • Solvolysis

    A nucleophilic substitution in which the solvent is also the nucleophile

  • stereoisomers

    Compounds that have the same constitution but differ in the 3D arrangement of atoms.

  • tertiary structure

    The threedimensional shape of a protein.

  • Wittig reaction

    A reaction that converts an aldehyde or ketone into an alkene, with the introduction of one or more carbon atoms.

  • Wolff-Kishner reduction

    Reduction of the C"O group of an aldehyde or ketone to a CH2 group using hydrazine and a base. Ylide (Section 16.6)