- 1.1: ?Why does soda fizz?
- 1.2: What are chemicals? Give some examples
- 1.3: What do chemists try to do? How do they understand the natural world?
- 1.4: What is meant by the statement, Matter does what molecules do? Give...
- 1.5: Define chemistry
- 1.6: How is chemistry connected to everyday life? How is chemistry relev...
- 1.7: Explain the scientific method
- 1.8: Give an example from this chapter of the scientific method at work.
- 1.9: What is the difference between a law and a theory?
- 1.10: What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
- 1.11: What is wrong with the statement, It is just a theory?
- 1.12: What is the law of conservation of mass, and who discovered it?
- 1.13: What is the atomic theory, and who formulated it?
- 1.14: . What are three things you need to do to succeed in this course?
- 1.15: Examine the opening figure of this chapter. Use theinformation in S...
- 1.16: Examine Figure 1.1 and, from a molecular point of view, explain why...
- 1.17: Classify each statement as an observation, a law, or atheory.(a) Wh...
- 1.18: Classify each statement as an observation, a law, or atheory.(a) Th...
- 1.19: A student prepares several samples of the same gasand measures thei...
- 1.20: A student measures the volume of a gas sample atseveral different t...
Solutions for Chapter 1: The Chemical World
Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 4th Edition
For a substituted aromatic ring, the effect of an electron-donating substituent that increases the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
A carboxylic acid that contains an amino 1¬NH22 group attached to the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxylic acid 1¬COOH2 functional group. (Section 24.7)
The study of the chemistry of living systems. (Chapter 24: Introduction)
In an acid-base reaction, the product that results when an acid is deprotonated.
Nonequivalent protons for which the replacement test produces diastereomers.
A symbol used to show that structures on either side of it are resonance-contributing structures
Any process with a positive DG.
first law of thermodynamics
A statement that energy is conserved in any process. One way to express the law is that the change in internal energy, ?E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w. (Section 5.2)
A compound with the structure R2N!NRO.
nonpolar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally. (Section 8.4) normal boiling point The boiling point at 1 atm pressure. (Section 11.5)
Model of the atom with a nucleus containing protons and neutrons and with electrons in the space outside the nucleus. (Section 2.2)
A region of space that can hold two electrons
Refers to two hydrogens bonded to a carbon atom. When a different atom replaces one or the other, the carbon becomes a chiral center. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are prochiral. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol
An isotope that is radioactive; that is, it is undergoing nuclear changes with emission of radiation. (Section 21.1)
The amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature to form a saturated solution. (Sections 4.2 and 13.2)
A nucleophilic substitution in which the solvent is also the nucleophile
Compounds that have the same constitution but differ in the 3D arrangement of atoms.
The threedimensional shape of a protein.
A reaction that converts an aldehyde or ketone into an alkene, with the introduction of one or more carbon atoms.
Reduction of the C"O group of an aldehyde or ketone to a CH2 group using hydrazine and a base. Ylide (Section 16.6)