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Solutions for Chapter Chapter 16: Oxidation and Reduction

Full solutions for Introductory Chemistry | 4th Edition

ISBN: 9780321687937

Solutions for Chapter Chapter 16: Oxidation and Reduction

Solutions for Chapter Chapter 16
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Textbook: Introductory Chemistry
Edition: 4
Author: Nivaldo J. Tro
ISBN: 9780321687937

Introductory Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321687937. Since 113 problems in chapter Chapter 16: Oxidation and Reduction have been answered, more than 19046 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter. Chapter Chapter 16: Oxidation and Reduction includes 113 full step-by-step solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Introductory Chemistry, edition: 4. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • cation

    A positively charged ion. (Section 2.7)

  • complex lipid

    A lipid that readily undergoes hydrolysis in aqueous acid or base to produce smaller fragments.

  • conjugate addition

    An addition reaction in which a nucleophile and a proton are added across the two ends of a conjugated p system.

  • Enantiotopic groups

    Atoms or groups on an atom that give a chiral center when one of the groups is replaced by another group. A pair of enantiomers results. The hydrogens of the CH2 group of ethanol, for example, are enantiotopic. Replacing one of them by deuterium gives (R)-1-deuteroethanol; replacing the other gives (S)-1-deuteroethanol. Enantiotopic groups have identical chemical shifts in achiral environments but different chemical shifts in chiral environments.

  • flagpole interactions

    For cyclohexane, the steric interactions that occur between the flagpole hydrogen atoms in a boat conformation.

  • gas constant (R)

    The constant of proportionality in the ideal-gas equation. (Section 10.4)

  • Gibbs free energy

    A thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy, in the form G = H - TS. For a change occurring at constant temperature and pressure, the change in free energy is ?G = ?H - T?S. (Section 19.5)

  • halogen abstraction

    In radical reactions, a type of arrow-pushing pattern in which a halogen atom is abstracted by a radical, generating a new radical.

  • Hydrophilic

    From the Greek, meaning water-loving.

  • indicator

    A substance added to a solution that changes color when the added solute has reacted with all the solute present in solution. The most common type of indicator is an acid–base indicator whose color changes as a function of pH. (Section 4.6)

  • line spectrum

    A spectrum that contains radiation at only certain specific wavelengths. (Section 6.3)

  • metallic solids

    Solids that are composed of metal atoms. (Section 12.1)

  • molecular weight

    The mass of the collection of atoms represented by the chemical formula for a molecule. (Section 3.3)

  • Monomer

    From the Greek, mono 1 meros, meaning single part. The simplest nonredundant unit from which a polymer is synthesized.

  • nanomaterial

    A solid whose dimensions range from 1 to 100 nm and whose properties differ from those of a bulk material with the same composition. (Section 12.1)

  • photosynthesis

    The process that occurs in plant leaves by which light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates and oxygen. (Section 23.3)

  • polyatomic ion

    An electrically charged group of two or more atoms. (Section 2.7)

  • Retrosynthesis

    A process of reasoning backwards from a target molecule to a suitable set of starting materials.

  • standard emf, also called the standard cell potential 1E°2

    The emf of a cell when all reagents are at standard conditions. (Section 20.4)

  • Telechelic polymer

    A polymer in which its growing chains are terminated by formation of new functional groups at both ends of its chains. These new functional groups are introduced by adding reagents, such as CO2 or ethylene oxide, to the growing chains.

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