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Solutions for Chapter Lesson 96: First and Second Laws

Full solutions for Living by Chemistry | 2nd Edition

ISBN: 9781464142314

Solutions for Chapter Lesson 96: First and Second Laws

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Living by Chemistry, edition: 2. This expansive textbook survival guide covers the following chapters and their solutions. Chapter Lesson 96: First and Second Laws includes 11 full step-by-step solutions. Living by Chemistry was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9781464142314. Since 11 problems in chapter Lesson 96: First and Second Laws have been answered, more than 23431 students have viewed full step-by-step solutions from this chapter.

Key Chemistry Terms and definitions covered in this textbook
  • acid-catalyzed hydration

    A reaction that achieves the addition of water across a double bond in the presence of an acid catalyst.

  • alkynes

    Hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon–carbon triple bonds. (Section 24.2)

  • amalgam.

    An alloy of mercury with another metal or metals. (21.2)

  • band structure

    The electronic structure of a solid, defining the allowed ranges of energy for electrons in a solid. (Section 12.7)

  • bridgeheads

    In a bicyclic system, the carbon atoms where the rings are fused together.

  • carbon black

    A microcrystalline form of carbon. (Section 22.9)

  • carbonyl group

    A CRO bond. carboxylic acid derivative (Sect. 21.6): A compound that is similar in structure to a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) but the OH group of the carboxylic acid has been replaced with a different group, Z, where Z is a heteroatom such as Cl, O, N, etc. Nitriles (R!C#N) are also considered to be carboxylic acid derivatives because they have the same oxidation state as carboxylic acids.

  • coupling (of radicals)

    A radical process in which two radicals join together and form a bond.

  • cyanides.

    Compounds containing the CN2 ion. (22.3)

  • diffusion.

    The gradual mixing of molecules of one gas with the molecules of another by virtue of their kinetic properties. (5.7)

  • endergonic

    Any process with a positive DG.

  • Gibbs free energy

    A thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy, in the form G = H - TS. For a change occurring at constant temperature and pressure, the change in free energy is ?G = ?H - T?S. (Section 19.5)

  • interhalogens

    Compounds formed between two different halogen elements. Examples include IBr and BrF3. (Section 22.4)

  • ionic bond

    A bond between oppositely charged ions. The ions are formed from atoms by transfer of one or more electrons. (Section 8.1)

  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

    Plasma particles, density 1.02–1.06 g/mL, consisting of approximately 26% proteins, 50% cholesterol, 21% phospholipids, and 4% triglycerides.

  • mass defect

    The difference between the mass of a nucleus and the total masses of the individual nucleons that it contains. (Section 21.6)

  • micelle

    A group of molecules arranged in a sphere such that the surface of the sphere is comprised of polar groups, rendering the micelle water soluble.

  • mixture

    A combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity. (Section 1.2)

  • spontaneous

    A reaction with a negative DG, which means that products are favored at equilibrium.

  • Steric strain

    The strain that arises when nonbonded atoms separated by four or more bonds are forced closer to each other than their atomic (contact) radii would allow. Steric strain is also called non-bonded interaction strain, or van der Waals strain.

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