- Lesson 96.1: Why does an ice cube feel cold to your hand?
- Lesson 96.2: What is thermal equilibrium?
- Lesson 96.3: Is energy transferred to a liquid or from a liquid when it evaporat...
- Lesson 96.4: Is energy transferred to a gas or from a gas when it condenses?
- Lesson 96.5: What is evaporation and why is it a cooling process? What cools dur...
- Lesson 96.6: What determines the direction of heat transfer?
- Lesson 96.7: Do humans ever reach thermal equilibrium with the surrounding air? ...
- Lesson 96.8: Provide evidence to support the fi rst law of thermodynamics.
- Lesson 96.9: Provide evidence to support the second law of thermodynamics.
- Lesson 96.10: Explain why a campfi re burns out. Explain why the ashes eventually...
- Lesson 96.11: Could there ever be a situation in which an ice cube actually heats...
Solutions for Chapter Lesson 96: First and Second Laws
Full solutions for Living by Chemistry | 2nd Edition
A reaction that achieves the addition of water across a double bond in the presence of an acid catalyst.
Hydrocarbons containing one or more carbon–carbon triple bonds. (Section 24.2)
An alloy of mercury with another metal or metals. (21.2)
The electronic structure of a solid, defining the allowed ranges of energy for electrons in a solid. (Section 12.7)
In a bicyclic system, the carbon atoms where the rings are fused together.
A microcrystalline form of carbon. (Section 22.9)
A CRO bond. carboxylic acid derivative (Sect. 21.6): A compound that is similar in structure to a carboxylic acid (RCOOH) but the OH group of the carboxylic acid has been replaced with a different group, Z, where Z is a heteroatom such as Cl, O, N, etc. Nitriles (R!C#N) are also considered to be carboxylic acid derivatives because they have the same oxidation state as carboxylic acids.
coupling (of radicals)
A radical process in which two radicals join together and form a bond.
Compounds containing the CN2 ion. (22.3)
The gradual mixing of molecules of one gas with the molecules of another by virtue of their kinetic properties. (5.7)
Any process with a positive DG.
Gibbs free energy
A thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy, in the form G = H - TS. For a change occurring at constant temperature and pressure, the change in free energy is ?G = ?H - T?S. (Section 19.5)
Compounds formed between two different halogen elements. Examples include IBr and BrF3. (Section 22.4)
A bond between oppositely charged ions. The ions are formed from atoms by transfer of one or more electrons. (Section 8.1)
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Plasma particles, density 1.02–1.06 g/mL, consisting of approximately 26% proteins, 50% cholesterol, 21% phospholipids, and 4% triglycerides.
The difference between the mass of a nucleus and the total masses of the individual nucleons that it contains. (Section 21.6)
A group of molecules arranged in a sphere such that the surface of the sphere is comprised of polar groups, rendering the micelle water soluble.
A combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity. (Section 1.2)
A reaction with a negative DG, which means that products are favored at equilibrium.
The strain that arises when nonbonded atoms separated by four or more bonds are forced closer to each other than their atomic (contact) radii would allow. Steric strain is also called non-bonded interaction strain, or van der Waals strain.