- Chapter 18.1: Provide evidence to support the fi rst and second laws of thermodyn...
- Chapter 18.2: Why is it possible to touch a piece of aluminum foil shortly aft er...
- Chapter 18.3: Thermal energy is transferred to raise the temperature of several s...
- Chapter 18.4: An ice cube tray can make 16 ice cubes. Each mold is fi lled with 2...
- Chapter 18.5: A 5 kg iron pot is fi lled with 500 mL of water, placed on the stov...
- Chapter 18.6: A 30.4 g copper coin is heated to 400 8C with a Bunsen burner and t...
- Chapter 18.7: If 70 g of hot water at 85 8C are poured into 50 g of cold water at...
- Chapter 18.8: A 50.0 g sample of pure water is heated from 10 8C to 120 8C. a. Dr...
Solutions for Chapter Chapter 18: Observing Energy
Full solutions for Living by Chemistry | 2nd Edition
atomic mass unit (amu)
A unit based on the value of exactly 12 amu for the mass of the isotope of carbon that has six protons and six neutrons in the nucleus. (Sections 2.3 and 3.3)
atomic mass unit (amu).
A mass exactly equal to 1 12th the mass of one carbon-12 atom. (3.1)
The C “O double bond, a characteristic feature of several organic functional groups, such as ketones and aldehydes. (Section 24.4)
A structure that bears a positive charge.
A model of reaction rates based on the idea that molecules must collide to react; it explains the factors influencing reaction rates in terms of the frequency of collisions, the number of collisions with energies exceeding the activation energy, and the probability that the collisions occur with suitable orientations. (Section 14.5)
A chemical reaction in which a single compound reacts to give two or more products. (Section 3.2)
The isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus contains a proton and a neutron: 2 1H. (Section 22.2)
A method of problem solving in which units are carried through all calculations. Dimensional analysis ensures that the final answer of a calculation has the desired units. (Section 1.6)
Two mirror-image molecules of a chiral substance. The enantiomers are nonsuperimposable. (Section 23.4)
A carbohydrate in which the !OH on its anomeric carbon is replaced by !OR
The time required for the concentration of a reactant substance to decrease to half its initial value; the time required for half of a sample of a particular radioisotope to decay. (Sections 14.4 and 21.4)
An equation for either an oxidation or a reduction that explicitly shows the electrons involved, for example, Zn2 + 1aq2 + 2 e- ¡ Zn1s2. (Section 20.2)
The unit in which frequency is measured: s 21 (read “per second”).
The absolute temperature scale; the SI unit for temperature is the kelvin. Zero on the Kelvin scale corresponds to -273.15 °C. (Section 1.4)
A monosaccharide that, when written as a Fischer projection, has the !OH on its penultimate carbon to the left.
loss of a leaving group
One of the four arrow-pushing patterns for ionic reactions.
Any reaction in which one nucleophile is substituted for another at a tetravalent carbon atom.
retro Diels-Alder reaction
The reverse of a Diels-Alder reaction, achieved at high temperature. A cyclohexene derivative is converted into a diene and a dienophile.
A substitution reaction in which the solvent functions as the nucleophile.
Groups that weakly activate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby enhancing the rate of the reaction.