- Chapter 19.1: Describe an experimental setup that would help you compare two fuel...
- Chapter 19.2: A chemist wants to fi nd out how many Calories are in a bag of pean...
- Chapter 19.3: If iron nails are left outside, they will rust according to the rea...
- Chapter 19.4: Propane, C3H8(g), is used as fuel in small gas stoves and barbecue ...
Solutions for Chapter Chapter 19: Measuring Energy
Full solutions for Living by Chemistry | 2nd Edition
An amine in which the nitrogen atom is connected directly to an aromatic ring.
A polymer with completely random confi gurations at the chiral centers along its chain, as, for example, atactic polypropylene
A voltaic cell containing the same electrolyte and the same electrode materials in both the anode and cathode compartments. The emf of the cell is derived from a difference in the concentrations of the same electrolyte solutions in the compartments. (Section 20.6)
A compound in which two p bonds are separated from each other by exactly one s bond.
The number of adjacent atoms to which an atom is directly bonded. In a complex the coordination number of the metal ion is the number of donor atoms to which it is bonded. (Sections 12.37 and 24.2)
Cyclic polyethers whose molecular models resemble crowns.
The mass of the collection of atoms represented by a chemical formula. For example, the formula weight of NO2 (46.0 amu) is the sum of the masses of one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms. (Section 3.3)
The energy released when 1 g of a substance is combusted. (Section 5.8)
Heat of combustion (DH0 )
Standard heat of combustion is the heat released when one mole of a substance in its standard state (gas, liquid, solid) is oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water.
A cyclic compound whose ring contains more than one kind of atom. Oxirane (ethylene oxide), for example, is a heterocycle whose ring contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Heterolytic bond cleavage
Cleavage of a bond so that one fragment retains both electrons and the other retains none.
A representation of covalent bonding in a molecule that is drawn using Lewis symbols. Shared electron pairs are shown as lines, and unshared electron pairs are shown as pairs of dots. Only the valence-shell electrons are shown. (Section 8.3)
parts per billion (ppb)
The concentration of a solution in grams of solute per 109 (billion) grams of solution; equals micrograms of solute per liter of solution for aqueous solutions. (Section 13.4)
From the Greek, poly 1 meros, meaning many parts. Any long-chain molecule synthesized by linking together many single parts called monomers
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid with two or more carbon-carbon double bonds in its hydrocarbon chain
The structure of a protein resulting from the clustering of several individual protein chains into a final specific shape. (Section 24.7)
A compound containing an SRO bond that is flanked on both sides by R groups.
An intermediate with tetrahedral geometry. This type of intermediate is formed when a nucleophile attacks the carbonyl group of a carboxylic acid derivative.
The difference in energy between staggered and eclipsed conformations (for example, in ethane).
Groups that weakly activate an aromatic ring toward electrophilic aromatic substitution, thereby enhancing the rate of the reaction.
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